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Substance Use and Stress: A look at the relationship between the use of substances and stressors before and after the outbreak of COVID-19

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This study explores the relationship between the use of different substances and different kinds of stress from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The substances looked at were: alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, vape or nicotine use, and the use of prescription

This study explores the relationship between the use of different substances and different kinds of stress from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The substances looked at were: alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, vape or nicotine use, and the use of prescription pills that were not prescribed to the user. The different kinds of stress that were examined were: academic, social, financial, and stress caused by the outbreak of COVID-19.

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2021-05

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The Masculine Overcompensation Theory: A Gender Perspective on Teacher Reactions to Transgender Bullying

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Teachers represent important agents of gender socialization in schools and play a critical role in the lived experiences of transgender students. What remains less clear, however, is whether the gender of the teacher impacts their response to transgender bullying and

Teachers represent important agents of gender socialization in schools and play a critical role in the lived experiences of transgender students. What remains less clear, however, is whether the gender of the teacher impacts their response to transgender bullying and specifically how threats to gender identity might influence men who teach to respond negatively. The current study used a 2 (gender) x 3 (gender identity threat, no gender identity threat, and control) experimental design to assess whether the masculine overcompensation theory helps explain how men who teach respond to transgender victimization experiences. It was hypothesized that men in the gender identity threat condition would endorse more anti-trans attitudes (e.g., higher transphobic attitudes, lower allophilia [feelings of liking] toward transgender individuals, more traditional gender roles, less supportive responses to a vignette about transgender bullying, less support for school practices that support transgender students, and less likelihood of signing a petition supporting transgender youth rights) compared to the other conditions. It was also expected that they would endorse more negative affect but higher feelings of self-assurance. Women in the study served as a comparison group as no overcompensation effect is expected for them. Participants (N = 301) were nationally recruited through word of mouth, social media, and personal networks. Results from the current study did not support the theory of masculine overcompensation as there was no effect of threatening feedback. There were a number of significant gender differences. Men reported lower transgender allophilia, higher transphobia, more traditional gender role beliefs, less likelihood of signing the petition supporting transgender youth rights, and more self-assurance than women. No gender effect was found for negative affect or support for school practices supporting transgender students. There were also no observable differences in participant responses to the vignette by gender or condition. The implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

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2020