Matching Items (4)

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Substance Use and Stress: A look at the relationship between the use of substances and stressors before and after the outbreak of COVID-19

Description

This study explores the relationship between the use of different substances and different kinds of stress from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The substances looked at were: alcohol, marijuana,

This study explores the relationship between the use of different substances and different kinds of stress from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The substances looked at were: alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, vape or nicotine use, and the use of prescription pills that were not prescribed to the user. The different kinds of stress that were examined were: academic, social, financial, and stress caused by the outbreak of COVID-19.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Parental pressure for academic sucess in India

Description

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students in India were recruited from cities such as Chennai, Kerala, and Delhi totaling 608 (303 male, 301 females). Both online and in class recruitment occurred.

There were three main purposes of this study: 1) to construct a quantitative measure of parental pressure, 2) to evaluate whether self-esteem was a potential buffer of the negative impacts of parental pressure and academic stress, and 3) to understand better the factors impacting suicidality among adolescents in India by testing a path model of possible predictors suggested by the literature. Prevalence data of suicidal ideation and attempt history were also collected. Reporting on their experience over the past six months, 14.5% (n = 82) of the participants endorsed suicidal ideation and 12.3% (n = 69) of the participants admitted to having deliberately attempted to hurt or kill themselves.

Five constructs were explored in this study: parental pressure, academic stress, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem. The Parental Pressure for Success Scale, designed for this study, was used to measure parental pressure. The Educational Stress Scale-Adolescents was used to measure academic stress. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was used to measure depressive symptomology. Two items from the Youth Self-Report Checklist were used as a measure of suicidality in the past six months. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used to measure global self-esteem.

Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Parental Pressure for Success Scale was found. While self-esteem was not a significant moderator in this study, it was a predictor of both stress and depression. Results of the path analysis indicated that parental pressure predicted academic stress, stress predicted depression, and depression predicted suicidality. Parental pressure indirectly predicted suicidality through academic stress and depression. Results were discussed in the context of cultural influences on study findings such as the central role of parents in the family unit, the impact of cultural valuing of education, collectivistic society, and the Hindu concept of dharma, or duty.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The role of parental expectations and self-beliefs on academic stress and depression among Asian American undergraduates

Description

Despite high levels of academic achievement as a group (Ryan & Bauman, 2016), Asian American students face many challenges, including academic stress (Flatt, 2013; Liu, 2002) and depression (Aczon-Armstrong, Inouye,

Despite high levels of academic achievement as a group (Ryan & Bauman, 2016), Asian American students face many challenges, including academic stress (Flatt, 2013; Liu, 2002) and depression (Aczon-Armstrong, Inouye, & Reyes-Salvail, 2013; Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). The purpose of this study was to examine self-beliefs (academic self-efficacy and independent self-construal) and family and cultural variables (perceived parental expectations for academic achievement and internalization of the model minority myth) that may affect the academic stress and depression experienced by Asian American undergraduates.

A national sample of 314 participants (221 female, 89 male, 4 nonbinary) who self-identified as Asian American undergraduates were recruited online and through word of mouth. They completed assessments of six constructs: Academic self-efficacy, independent self-construal, perceived parental expectations for academic achievement, internalization of the model minority myth, academic stress, and depression.

Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that of the two self-beliefs, only academic self-efficacy was a predictor of academic stress and depression. The greater the students’ academic self-efficacy, the less academic stress and depression they reported. Independent self-construal was not a significant predictor. Additionally, perceived parental expectations for academic achievement also predicted academic stress and depression. The more students perceived that their parents had high expectations for their academic achievement, the more they experienced academic stress and depression. The cultural variable, internalization of the model minority myth, was not a predictor of academic stress or depression. A moderated hierarchical regression examining whether academic self-efficacy and independent self-construal moderated the relation between perceived parental expectations for academic achievement and academic stress and depression revealed no moderation effects.

The importance of academic self-efficacy is discussed in the context of cognitive theory that posits that thoughts and beliefs affect behaviors and emotions. In addition, cognitive theory is used to explain perceived parental expectations for academic achievement, as these are perceptions and beliefs about others, as related to one’s self. That the internalization of the model minority myth was not related to depression and academic stress is discussed. Limitations and clinical implications for working with Asian Americans with academic stress and depression are also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Factors Related to Academic Stress and Persistence Decisions of Diné College Students

Description

Native Americans reported the least number of degree completion than any other population in the United States. Native American students experience multiple challenges while in college making them a high-risk

Native Americans reported the least number of degree completion than any other population in the United States. Native American students experience multiple challenges while in college making them a high-risk population for college departure. This study used two hierarchical multiple regression to explore the relationship between non-cognitive factors (financial concerns, family support for education, cultural involvement, ethnic identity, academic self-efficacy) with both academic stress and academic persistence decisions from a combined sample of 209 Diné college students attending two tribal colleges on the Navajo reservation. Two-week test-retest reliabilities were calculated for three scales: family support for education, financial concerns, and Dine’ cultural involvement. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity Scale was modified to measure two facets of ethnic identity (centrality and private regard) for Diné students. Academic Self-Efficacy was measured by the College Self-Efficacy Inventory. The Daily Hassles Index for College Stress was used to measure academic stress and the Persistence/Voluntary Dropout Decisions Scale was measured academic persistence decisions. Due to its suppression effect on the relation of private regard and academic stress, centrality was not included in the hierarchical regression predicting academic stress; however, it was included in the prediction of academic persistence decisions. Diné students reported high scores for family support for education that suggested that generally the students at Dine’ College perceived that their families as being supportive and encouraging their efforts to get their college degree. In the hierarchical regression predicting academic stress, in step one more cultural involvement and fewer financial concerns predicted less academic stress. In the final model, only fewer financial concerns

and greater academic self-efficacy predicted less academic stress. In the hierarchical regression predicting academic persistence decisions, private regard and academic self- efficacy were significant, positive predictors of persistence decisions. These findings are discussed in light of the role counseling psychologists can play in addressing financial concerns, ethnic identity, and academic self-efficacy among Dine’ students in order to decrease their academic stress and increase their positive decisions about staying in school.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018