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Description

Described is a study investigating the feasibility and predictive value of the Teacher Feedback Coding System, a novel observational measure of teachers’ feedback provided to students in third grade classrooms. This measure assessed individual feedback events across three domains: feedback type, level of specificity and affect of the teacher.

Described is a study investigating the feasibility and predictive value of the Teacher Feedback Coding System, a novel observational measure of teachers’ feedback provided to students in third grade classrooms. This measure assessed individual feedback events across three domains: feedback type, level of specificity and affect of the teacher. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed five factors indicating separate types of feedback: positive and negative academic-informative feedback, positive and negative behavioral-informative feedback, and an overall factor representing supportive feedback. Multilevel models revealed direct relations between teachers’ negative academic-informative feedback and students’ spring math achievement, as well as between teachers’ negative behavioral-informative feedback and students’ behavior patterns. Additionally, a fall math-by-feedback interaction was detected in the case of teachers’ positive academic-informative feedback; students who began the year struggling in math benefitted from more of this type of feedback. Finally, teachers’ feedback was investigated as a potential mediator in a previously established relation between teachers’ self-reported depressive symptoms and the observed quality of the classroom environment. Partial mediation was detected in the case of teachers’ positive academic-informative feedback, such that this type of feedback was accountable for a portion of the variance observed in the relation between teachers’ depressive symptoms and the quality of the classroom environment.

ContributorsMcLean, Leigh Ellen (Author) / Connor, Carol M. (Thesis advisor) / Lemery, Kathryn (Committee member) / Doane, Leah (Committee member) / Grimm, Kevin (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2015
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Description

This qualitative case study examines seven bilingual Latino boys who were motivated readers. Several theories were examined in relationship to the study: sociocultural theory, reading motivation theories, and gender schema theory. Prior studies involving reading motivation of boys and Latinos showed a gap between boys and girls in reading achievement,

This qualitative case study examines seven bilingual Latino boys who were motivated readers. Several theories were examined in relationship to the study: sociocultural theory, reading motivation theories, and gender schema theory. Prior studies involving reading motivation of boys and Latinos showed a gap between boys and girls in reading achievement, high school completion, and college enrollment. Studies about reading motivation included choice in books, reading amount, social context of reading, habitual reading habits, and out-of-school reading as important factors that influence reading motivation. Additionally, Latino cultural factors such as machismo and familismo were examined as factors that influence motivation to read.

The study participants attended a large, urban school in Arizona and were selected from senior English classes after completing a participant selection survey. On the participant selection survey, boys self-identified their gender, language, and ethnicity; by several questions about attitudes toward reading and reading amount rated on a 10-point Likert scale gauged reading motivation. Each participant participated in an individual interview, completed a 60-question questionnaire/survey, and either attended a group interview or a second individual interview.

Data were triangulated by using data from these three sources and was coded as it was collected using Nvivo qualitative coding software. Coding began with five, basic categories derived from the study questions: motivation, home experiences, school experiences, school performance, and attitude toward reading. As coding continued, the coding categories expanded to include categories such as location of reading materials, access to books, choices in reading, format of texts, and many others. Eventually, there were four distinct categories that stood out in the findings: reading self-perception, purposes, preferences, and practices. The findings have a correlation to previous studies about reading motivation, but also add to the growing field of literature in the area of Latino boys' reading motivation.

Keywords: reading, motivation, self-efficacy, situational interest, Latino, boys, high school, gender, types of reading, reading purposes

ContributorsShaffer, Shelly (Author) / Blasingame, James (Thesis advisor) / Roen, Duane (Committee member) / Marsh, Josephine (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2015
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Description

Undergraduate teacher preparation programs face scrutiny regarding pre-service teachers' preparation upon graduation. Specifically, scholars contend that teacher preparation programs do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers to plan for effective instruction. Situated in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University, this action research study used the Theory of

Undergraduate teacher preparation programs face scrutiny regarding pre-service teachers' preparation upon graduation. Specifically, scholars contend that teacher preparation programs do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers to plan for effective instruction. Situated in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University, this action research study used the Theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge to examine (a) how pre-service teachers developed unit planning practices using the Backward Design framework and (b) the pedagogical teaching practices used as they implemented the unit plan in the classroom. During the student teaching course, pre-service teachers received instruction on how to use the Backward Design framework to plan a unit of instruction to implement in their placement classroom. Results from the mixed-methods study provided evidence that Backward Design was an effective way for pre-service teachers to plan instruction. Results from the study indicated that implementing and reflecting on lessons taught from the unit plan contributed to the pedagogical teaching practices used in the classroom. Furthermore, results demonstrated that designing, implementing, and reflecting on the unit plan contributed to a shift in how participants viewed themselves. Through the study, they began to view themselves more as a teacher, than a pre-service student teacher. Keywords: teacher preparation programs, unit planning, instructional practices

ContributorsBoozer, April (Author) / Carlson, David (Thesis advisor) / Barnard, Wendy (Committee member) / Holmes, Shaun (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2014
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Description

Few would argue that teacher effectiveness is a key lever in education reform and improving the overall quality of public education, especially in poor and working class communities. To that end, the importance of supporting and developing beginning teachers is of utmost importance in education, thus requiring deep understandings of

Few would argue that teacher effectiveness is a key lever in education reform and improving the overall quality of public education, especially in poor and working class communities. To that end, the importance of supporting and developing beginning teachers is of utmost importance in education, thus requiring deep understandings of the process of learning to teach. Yet, most conceptions of teacher learning struggle to capture the social, cultural, and historical context of teacher learning, particularly in understanding how learning and the production of knowledge is situated, active, and complex. One example of this limitation comes from the field of research on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its importance in developing effective beginning teachers. This study characterizes beginning teachers' production of PCK within a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) framework. This study finds that the teachers produce PCK mostly based on their own individual experiences and reflections, receiving little assistance from the structures intended to provide them with support. The self-produced PCK is uneven, underdeveloped, and relies on teachers to use their sense of agency and identity to navigate dissonant and unbalanced activity systems. Over time, PCK production remains uneven and underdeveloped, while the individual teachers find it more and more difficult to bring balance to their activity systems, ultimately resulting in their exit from the activity system of teaching in their district and school.

ContributorsDiaz, Victor H (Author) / Fischman, Gustavo E. (Thesis advisor) / Luft, Julie (Committee member) / Artiles, Alfredo (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description

This qualitative, action research study examines how teacher-writers' identities are constructed through the practice of revision in an extra-curriculum writing group. The writing group was designed to support the teacher-writers as they revised classroom research projects for submission for a scholarly journal. Using discourse analysis, the researcher explores how the

This qualitative, action research study examines how teacher-writers' identities are constructed through the practice of revision in an extra-curriculum writing group. The writing group was designed to support the teacher-writers as they revised classroom research projects for submission for a scholarly journal. Using discourse analysis, the researcher explores how the teacher-writers' identities are constructed in the contested spaces of revision. This exploration focuses on contested issues that invariably emerge in a dynamic binary of reader/writer, issues of authority, ownership, and unstable reader and writer identities. By negotiating these contested spaces--these contact zones--the teacher-writers construct opportunities to flex their rhetorical agency. Through rhetorical agency, the teacher-writers shift their discoursal identities by discarding and acquiring a variety of discourses. As a result, the practice of revision constructs the teacher-writers identities as hybrid, as consisting of self and other.

ContributorsClark-Oates, Angela (Author) / Smith, Karen (Thesis advisor) / Roen, Duane (Thesis advisor) / Fischman, Gustavo (Committee member) / Early, Jessica (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description

In the next decade, community college English departments will expand their developmental course offerings. The students who take these developmental courses generally have higher incidence of diagnosed learnin g disabilities, bleak economic circumstances that require them to work full time, greater dependence on public transporation, and some level of frustration

In the next decade, community college English departments will expand their developmental course offerings. The students who take these developmental courses generally have higher incidence of diagnosed learnin g disabilities, bleak economic circumstances that require them to work full time, greater dependence on public transporation, and some level of frustration and confusion about being placed in a non-credit course despite graduating from high school. Using a qualitative approach, this action research study articulates the faculty behaviors, classroom environments, and faculty-student interactions that help developmental writing students succeed. The researcher interviewed successful students about what the faculty members did that helped them succeed in developmental writing classes. Then the researcher created and tested a checklist to help writing instructors conform their practices to best practices identified in published research and interviews with successful students. Instructors found the checklist useful in evaluating their own practices in relation to the current research.

ContributorsBixler, L. Ann (Laura Ann) (Author) / Clark, Christopher M. (Thesis advisor) / Rund, James (Thesis advisor) / Young, Donna (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description

Federal mandates, such as, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) set high standards, but in reality did little to promote critical thinking instruction and learning in our nation's schools. Race to the Top is our nation's current attempt to improve education and thanks to this legislation there is now a set

Federal mandates, such as, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) set high standards, but in reality did little to promote critical thinking instruction and learning in our nation's schools. Race to the Top is our nation's current attempt to improve education and thanks to this legislation there is now a set of common core standards aimed at infusing critical thinking into the curriculum. Districts in Arizona are struggling to provide common core training to prepare teachers to teach these new, rigorous standards. This is a problem because teaching critical thinking is challenging. While grade level teams often get together, little time is devoted to create lessons that are focused on deep learning and little time is set aside to observe lessons and reflect on student engagement. One potential solution to this may be lesson study. Lesson study is a method of professional development that encourages teachers to reflect on their teaching through a cycle of collaborative lesson planning and observation. The lesson study cycle connects with the constructed nature of learning provided by Vygotsky Space. This action research was designed to explore how 10 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers at a K-8 school in Arizona learned how to infuse critical thinking into their lessons. This study took place from July to November of 2011. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data. Quantitative measures included Likert-items on a survey and lesson plans scored with the district rubric. Qualitative measures included open-ended survey items, transcriptions of lesson debriefs, reflective learning logs, and the researcher's personal field notes. Data were analyzed separately and then triangulated to reduce bias. Findings from this study indicate that although it was challenging for the teachers, lesson study enabled them to successfully integrate critical thinking into their lesson plans. The process of lesson study increased the teachers' efficacy to create lessons, and it helped them understand how important critical thinking was for their students. The teachers also came to value the lesson study process as a positive approach to professional development. Based on these findings, implications are made, and further action research cycles suggested.

ContributorsLawlor, Leonor Aguilar (Author) / Zambo, Debby (Thesis advisor) / Hansen, Cory (Committee member) / Horn, Patty (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description

Due to the push down of academics, today's elementary students are being asked to learn more concepts and sit for longer periods of time. Sitting slows thinking, whereas movement wakes up the brain. Using movement to learn is embodied cognition, or learning through both the body and the brain. Movement

Due to the push down of academics, today's elementary students are being asked to learn more concepts and sit for longer periods of time. Sitting slows thinking, whereas movement wakes up the brain. Using movement to learn is embodied cognition, or learning through both the body and the brain. Movement should be part of instruction for young students; however teachers are often not sure how to incorporate movement in their lesson plans. The Japanese practice of lesson study may help because it embeds teachers' new learning in their classrooms while intimately connecting it to the learning of their students, and it links with the cyclical, constructed theory of learning provided by Vygotsky Space. If teachers incorporate movement in their lessons, children have the potential to become more engaged and learn. This action research study was designed to understand if two first grade, two second grade, and one third grade teacher at a Title One elementary school in the Southwestern United States could learn how to use movement more during instruction through lesson study. This innovation took place for 14-weeks during which 12 lessons using movement were developed and taught. Data were collected prior to the study and during each portion of the cyclical process including, while teachers learned, during lessons using movement, and when lessons were discussed and changed. The data sources were pre and post teacher surveys, student surveys, observation protocols, lesson plans, transcripts of lesson study meetings, and researcher notes. To reduce bias a triangulated mixed methods design was used. Results indicate that through lesson study teachers were able to learn about movement, try it, observe the results, and adjust it to fit their teaching style and their students' needs. Data showed increased student engagement in lessons that incorporated movement as evidenced in the students' words, bodies, and learning. After participating in the study, the teachers realized they personally use movement to learn, and teachers' efficacy regarding their ability to plan movement in their lessons increased. Additionally, they started purposefully planning movement across their curriculum. Based on the results, further cycles

ContributorsLyding, Linnea (Author) / Zambo, Debby (Thesis advisor) / Hansen, Cory (Committee member) / Isai, Shelley (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description

The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effects the Six Seconds model on the emotional intelligence development of teacher candidates in a teacher education program described above. How would this focus impact a teacher candidate's ability navigate the emotional aspects of teaching, exercise optimism, and make

The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effects the Six Seconds model on the emotional intelligence development of teacher candidates in a teacher education program described above. How would this focus impact a teacher candidate's ability navigate the emotional aspects of teaching, exercise optimism, and make daily choices based on a greater sense of purpose? A mixed-methods (QUAL-quant ) was employed to investigate this question and to gain a greater understanding of emotional intelligence in the teaching profession. The Six Seconds model of emotional intelligence was used as a foundation for the intervention and data collection. Data were collected through an emotional intelligence assessment, a teaching satisfaction survey, semi-structured interviews, observations, field notes, training transcripts, training artifacts, and a participant journal. The results from the study indicated that the Six Seconds model has the potential to positively impact emotional intelligence development in teacher candidates. Moreover, the study resulted in broader assertions about emotional intelligence development among future teachers. Emotional intelligence starts with a commitment to change. Second, teacher candidates must have the opportunity to continuously apply new learning in an environment conducive to EQ development. Finally, the pursuit of a noble goal is critical to the application of all other emotional intelligence competencies.

ContributorsRojas, Michelle (Author) / Carlson, David L. (Thesis advisor) / Heck, Thomas (Committee member) / Stafford, Catherine (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012
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Description

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the state. This is

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the state. This is a study of the Train the Trainer component of an innovative K12 professional development model designed to meet the needs of the state's lowest performing schools that served some of the state's most marginalized students. Pursuing a Vygotzkian social constructivist framework, the model was developed and informed by its stakeholders, providing training that was collaborative, job-embedded, ongoing, and continuously adapted to meet the needs of the School Improvement Grant participants. Schools in the multi-case study were awarded the federal ARRA School Improvement Grant in 2010. Focus questions include: What influence does the Train the Trainer component have on classroom instruction specifically as it relates to formative assessment? and To what extent does the trainer support the implementation of the Train the Trainer professional development at the classroom level? The action research study took place from August 2011 to February 2012 and used a mixed-methods research design.

ContributorsPollnow, Shelly (Author) / Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar (Thesis advisor) / Jimenez-Silva, Margarita (Committee member) / Williams, Susan (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2012