Matching Items (8)

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The Cognitive and Social Psychological Bases of Bias in Forensic Mental Health Judgments

Description

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals.

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals. Forensic mental health professionals help courts make decisions in cases when some question of psychology pertains to the legal issue, such as in insanity cases, child custody hearings, and psychological injuries in civil suits. The legal system itself and many people involved, such as jurors, assume mental health experts are “objective” and untainted by bias. However, basic psychological science from several branches of the discipline suggest the law’s assumption about experts’ protection from bias is wrong. Indeed, several empirical studies now show clear evidence of (unintentional) bias in forensic mental health experts’ judgments and decisions. In this chapter, we explain the science of how and why human judgments are susceptible to various kinds of bias. We describe dual-process theories from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology that can help explain these biases. We review the empirical evidence to date specifically about cognitive and social psychological biases in forensic mental health judgments, weaving in related literature about biases in other types of expert judgment, with hypotheses about how forensic experts are likely affected by these biases. We close with a discussion of directions for future research and practice.

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Date Created
  • 2017-04-30

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Impacts of Age on Neuropsychological Task Performance

Description

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) would decrease from their initial visit to their one year follow-up visit and that greater overall age is associated with worse performance. Overall, the older adults with a follow-up visit in this study experienced greater decline on the RBANS DMI than on the RBANS total scaled score. There seems to be a negative trend in which individuals with higher first-visit VCI scores experience greater improvement on the first trial of the motor task with the non-dominant hand. The same trend can be seen in DMI scores where higher initial DMI scores are associated with greater improvement on the first non-dominant hand trial of the motor task. This initial trend suggests that visuospatial scores have an association with long-term change in the motor task. The number of participants in this data set were limited, thus more data will be needed to increase confidence in conclusions about these relationships in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Recommendations of nursing interventions that promote development in chronically ill and hospitalized infants

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Hospitalized and chronically ill infants are at risk for motor, cognitive, and social developmental delays. Nurses have an important role in supporting infant and family development to mitigate these delays.

Hospitalized and chronically ill infants are at risk for motor, cognitive, and social developmental delays. Nurses have an important role in supporting infant and family development to mitigate these delays. A literature review was performed to identify nursing interventions that promote development in these three categories. After literature was selected, critical appraisals were performed to assess the quality of evidence. Breast feeding, early cognitive-motor intervention, and family centered care were found to be beneficial for promoting motor development. Maternal scaffolding, responsive-didactic caregiving, and skin-to-skin contact are recommended nursing interventions for cognitive development. Lastly, integration of music is the nursing intervention recommended to promote social development.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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mGluR5 Positive allosteric modulation as a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia

Description

Patients with schizophrenia have impaired cognitive flexibility, as evidenced by behaviors of perseveration. Cognitive impairments may be due to dysregulation of glutamate and/or loss of neuronal plasticity in the medial

Patients with schizophrenia have impaired cognitive flexibility, as evidenced by behaviors of perseveration. Cognitive impairments may be due to dysregulation of glutamate and/or loss of neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The purpose of these studies was to examine the effects of mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) alone and in combination with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801, a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. An operant-based cognitive set-shifting task was utilized to assess cognitive flexibility, in vivo microdialysis procedures to measure extracellular glutamate levels in the mPFC, and diolistic labeling to assess the effects on dendritic spine density and morphology in the mPFC. Results revealed that chronic administration of the mGluR5 PAM CDPPB was able to significantly reduce the effects of chronically administered MK-801 on both behavioral perseveration and glutamate neurotransmission. Results also showed that CDPPB had no evidence of an effect on dendritic spine density or morphology, but the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator fenobam caused significant increases in spine density and the frequency of occurrence of spines with smaller head diameters. Conclusions include that CDPPB is able to reverse MK-801 induced cognitive deficits as well as alterations in mPFC glutamate neurochemistry. The culmination of these studies add further support for targeting mGluR5 with PAMs as a novel mechanism to alleviate cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Service-related conditions and higher-order cognitive processing in military veteran college students

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Military veterans have a significantly higher incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), depression, and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to civilians. Military veterans also represent a rapidly growing subgrou

Military veterans have a significantly higher incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), depression, and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to civilians. Military veterans also represent a rapidly growing subgroup of college students, due in part to the robust and financially incentivizing educational benefits under the Post-9/11 GI Bill. The overlapping cognitively impacting symptoms of service-related conditions combined with the underreporting of mTBI and psychiatric-related conditions, make accurate assessment of cognitive performance in military veterans challenging. Recent research findings provide conflicting information on cognitive performance patterns in military veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether service-related conditions and self-assessments predict performance on complex working memory and executive function tasks for military veteran college students. Sixty-one military veteran college students attending classes at Arizona State University campuses completed clinical neuropsychological tasks and experimental working memory and executive function tasks. The results revealed that a history of mTBI significantly predicted poorer performance in the areas of verbal working memory and decision-making. Depression significantly predicted poorer performance in executive function related to serial updating. In contrast, the commonly used clinical neuropsychological tasks were not sensitive service-related conditions including mTBI, PTSD, and depression. The differing performance patterns observed between the clinical tasks and the more complex experimental tasks support that researchers and clinicians should use tests that sufficiently tax verbal working memory and executive function when evaluating the subtle, higher-order cognitive deficits associated with mTBI and depression.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a cognitive behavioral skills building intervention in adolescents with chronic daily headaches

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ABSTRACT Approximately 3.5% of adolescents in the United States have chronic daily headache (CDH). Chronic daily headaches in adolescents are often refractory to the adult pharmacological interventions. And as a

ABSTRACT Approximately 3.5% of adolescents in the United States have chronic daily headache (CDH). Chronic daily headaches in adolescents are often refractory to the adult pharmacological interventions. And as a result, adolescents typically experience increased levels of stress, which exacerbates their headaches. Chronic daily headaches negatively impact both the adolescent and their family. Adolescents with CDHs frequently exemplify comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and increased risk for suicide. Risk factors for CDH in adolescents have been well studied; however, few studies have focused on psychologically based interventions to enhance effective coping, positive mental health, and pain relief in this group of teens. Given the paucity of psychologically focused interventions in this group, further research is necessary to test and develop the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral skills building (CBSB) interventions. This pilot study focused on the use of a CBSB intervention that emphasized problem solving, cue recognition, effective communication, behavior modeling, cognitive reappraisal, stress management, effective coping, and positive thinking. A randomized controlled trial pilot study was conducted. The intervention group received a seven-week intervention focused on CBSB techniques and headache education, while the comparison headache education group received a seven-week program focused on basic headache hygiene measures (e.g., adequate sleep, adequate hydration, dietary triggers, environmental triggers). The total sample included 32 adolescents inclusive of the ages 13 and 17 years. Paired t-tests resulted in significant preliminary positive effects for COPE-HEP on anxiety, depression, beliefs, headache disability, headache frequency, and headache duration. Comparison group education resulted in significant preliminary positive effects on anxiety, depression, headache disability, headache frequency, headache pain level, headache duration, and medication frequency. There were no significant changes over time in means of parent perception of pain interference for both groups. Independent t-tests revealed that COPE-HEP teens had significantly less anxiety and headache duration at post-intervention. The acceptability of the COPE-HEP intervention with adolescents with CDHs in a specialty care setting is supported by this study, while the feasibility of conducting this study in a specialty care setting is partially supported. These findings support a need to refine the intervention and test both its short and long-term effects in a full-scale randomized controlled trial with adolescents who have CDHs.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Latent language ability groups in bilingual children across three methods of assessment

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Differentiating bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) from those with typical development in the process of learning a second language has been a challenge. Studies have focused on improving

Differentiating bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) from those with typical development in the process of learning a second language has been a challenge. Studies have focused on improving the diagnostic accuracy of language measures for bilinguals. However, researchers are faced with two main challenges when estimating the diagnostic accuracy of new measures: (a) using an a priori diagnosis of children (children with and without PLI), as a reference may introduce error given there is no gold standard for the a priori classification; and (b) classifying children into only two groups may be another source of error given evidence that there may be more than two language ability groups with different strengths and weaknesses or, alternatively, a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The current study tested for the number of distinct language ability groups and their characteristics in predominately Spanish-speaking children in the U.S. without using an a priori classification as a reference. In addition, the study examined to what extent the latent groups differed on each measure, and the stability of language ability groups across three assessment methods in Spanish (standardized tests, language sample analyses, and comprehensive assessment), taking in to account English and non-verbal cognitive skills. The study included 431 bilingual children attending English-only education. Three latent profile analyses were conducted, one for each method of assessment. Results suggested more than two distinct language ability groups in the population with the method of assessment influencing the number and characteristics of the groups. Specifically, four groups were estimated based on the comprehensive assessment, and three based on standardized assessment or language sample analysis in Spanish. The stability of the groups was high on average, particularly between the comprehensive assessment and the standardized measures. Results indicate that an a priori classification of children into two groups, those with and without PLI, could lead to misclassification, depending on the measures used.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Socioemotional competencies, cognitive ability, and achievement in gifted students

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This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n

This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite achievement significantly correlated with all areas of SEC on the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA). Cognitive ability significantly correlated with all areas of SEC as well. Composite cognitive ability significantly correlated with all composite achievement, as well as with achievement in all subject areas assessed. Achievement scores tended to be higher in older age groups in comparison to younger age groups. When gender differences were found (in some areas of SEC and in language achievement), they tended to be higher in females. Gender moderated the relation between SEC and composite achievement. The areas of SEC that best predicted achievement, over-and-above other SEC scales, were Optimistic Thinking, Self-Awareness, and Relationship Skills. While cognitive scores did not significantly predict achievement when controlling for SEC, SEC did significantly predict achievement over-and-above cognitive ability scores. Overall findings suggest that SEC may be important in children's school achievement; thus it is important for schools and families to promote the development of SEC in gifted children, especially in the areas of optimism and self-awareness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013