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- All Subjects: Choruses
As robots are increasingly migrating out of factories and research laboratories and into our everyday lives, they should move and act in environments designed for humans. For this reason, the need of anthropomorphic movements is of utmost importance. The objective of this thesis is to solve the inverse kinematics problem of redundant robot arms that results to anthropomorphic configurations. The swivel angle of the elbow was used as a human arm motion parameter for the robot arm to mimic. The swivel angle is defined as the rotation angle of the plane defined by the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis that connects the shoulder and wrist joints. Using kinematic data recorded from human subjects during every-day life tasks, the linear sensorimotor transformation model was validated and used to estimate the swivel angle, given the desired end-effector position. Defining the desired swivel angle simplifies the kinematic redundancy of the robot arm. The proposed method was tested with an anthropomorphic redundant robot arm and the computed motion profiles were compared to the ones of the human subjects. This thesis shows that the method computes anthropomorphic configurations for the robot arm, even if the robot arm has different link lengths than the human arm and starts its motion at random configurations.
Small metallic parts of size less than 1mm, with features measured in tens of microns, with tolerances as small as 0.1 micron are in demand for the research in many fields such as electronics, optics, and biomedical engineering. Because of various drawbacks with non-mechanical micromanufacturing processes, micromilling has shown itself to be an attractive alternative manufacturing method. Micromilling is a microscale manufacturing process that can be used to produce a wide range of small parts, including those that have complex 3-dimensional contours. Although the micromilling process is superficially similar to conventional-scale milling, the physical processes of micromilling are unique due to the scale effects. These scale effects occur due to unequal scaling of the parameters from the macroscale to the microscale milling. One key example of scale effects in micromilling process is a geometrical source of error known as chord error. The chord error limits the feedrate to a reduced value to produce the features within machining tolerances. In this research, it is hypothesized that the increase of chord error in micromilling can be alleviated by intelligent modification of the kinematic arrangement of the micromilling machine. Currently, all 3-axis micromilling machines are constructed with a Cartesian kinematic arrangement with three perpendicular linear axes. In this research, the cylindrical kinematic arrangement is introduced, and an analytical expression for the chord error for this arrangement is derived. The numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the chord errors for the cylindrical kinematic arrangement. It is found that cylindrical kinematic arrangement gives reduced chord error for some types of the desired toolpaths. Then, the kinematic redundancy is introduced to design a novel kinematic arrangement. Several desired toolpaths have been numerically simulated to evaluate the chord error for kinematically redundant arrangement. It is concluded that this arrangement gives up to 5 times reduced error for all the desired toolpaths considered, and allows significant gains in allowable feedrates.
Reducing device dimensions, increasing transistor densities, and smaller timing windows, expose the vulnerability of processors to soft errors induced by charge carrying particles. Since these factors are inevitable in the advancement of processor technology, the industry has been forced to improve reliability on general purpose Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs). With the availability of increased hardware resources, redundancy based techniques are the most promising methods to eradicate soft error failures in CMP systems. This work proposes a novel customizable and redundant CMP architecture (UnSync) that utilizes hardware based detection mechanisms (most of which are readily available in the processor), to reduce overheads during error free executions. In the presence of errors (which are infrequent), the always forward execution enabled recovery mechanism provides for resilience in the system. The inherent nature of UnSync architecture framework supports customization of the redundancy, and thereby provides means to achieve possible performance-reliability trade-offs in many-core systems. This work designs a detailed RTL model of UnSync architecture and performs hardware synthesis to compare the hardware (power/area) overheads incurred. It then compares the same with those of the Reunion technique, a state-of-the-art redundant multi-core architecture. This work also performs cycle-accurate simulations over a wide range of SPEC2000, and MiBench benchmarks to evaluate the performance efficiency achieved over that of the Reunion architecture. Experimental results show that, UnSync architecture reduces power consumption by 34.5% and improves performance by up to 20% with 13.3% less area overhead, when compared to Reunion architecture for the same level of reliability achieved.