Matching Items (9)

135210-Thumbnail Image.png

Reproduction in Science Fiction

Description

Science fiction works can reflect the relationship between science and society by telling a story set in the future of ethical implications or social consequences of scientific advancement. This thesis

Science fiction works can reflect the relationship between science and society by telling a story set in the future of ethical implications or social consequences of scientific advancement. This thesis investigated how the concept of reproduction is depicted in popular science fiction works. I reviewed and analyzed four popular science fiction works that all showed fear over the government controlling our choices in reproductive technology. The analysis of my thesis can be used as a way to understand how we view the ideas and the consequences of reproductive technology through concepts of reproduction. These perspectives and ideas as a reflection of society's concerns as we discuss the future of the ethics and politics of reproductive technology and reproductive issues.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

148264-Thumbnail Image.png

Using Steroid Hormone Concentrations to Assess the Reproductive Cycle of the Bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in Southern Florida

Description

The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, is a large species that it is commonly distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. Despite the bull sharks global distribution, little is known about

The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, is a large species that it is commonly distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. Despite the bull sharks global distribution, little is known about its life history. In particular, the limited reproductive information suggests the bull shark is placental viviparous, assumed to have a biennial cycle, and that newborn pup nurseries are near the coast. In order to conserve and protect any species, an understanding of the habitats where reproductive events occur is needed. In order to better understand the habitat use in Biscayne bay, Fla, and whether certain areas are critical during the reproductive cycle of bull sharks, I will evaluate circulating levels of the hormones progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone using radioimmunoassay. These samples were collected by the University of Miami opportunistically between 2012-2020 shipped to Arizona State University, where they were analyzed. For my study a total of 73 mature samples, 27 females and 46 males, were collected over the sampling period. The results indicated that Biscayne bay is an important gestation area for bull sharks. The hormonal trends for males and females demonstrated an interesting reproductive cycle, which were further supported through other placental viviparous reproductive patterns. Females had a low level of estradiol throughout most of the year, besides in the summer where there were no sharks in the bay due to movement to estuaries. During their return to the bay, there was a peak in progesterone indicating early pregnancy. Male testosterone levels indicated that there was a production in sperm right before females speculated peak in estradiol.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

137165-Thumbnail Image.png

Are males turned on by sexy females? Female attractiveness upregulates male reproductive physiology and behavior in zebra finches

Description

Testosterone (T) is a steroid hormone that affects behavior and reproductive traits (e.g. spermatogenesis and ornamentation) in vertebrates. In addition to long-term influences, T can rapidly increase in males following

Testosterone (T) is a steroid hormone that affects behavior and reproductive traits (e.g. spermatogenesis and ornamentation) in vertebrates. In addition to long-term influences, T can rapidly increase in males following aggressive male-male encounters. Less is known how females directly influence male T and behavior, though research with humans suggests that sexually attractive females elicit a greater increase in male T and reproductive behavior than unattractive females. In birds, the influence of female attractiveness on male T and behavior is currently untested. We hypothesized that T and courtship behavior in male zebra finches would correlate with female attractiveness. We used red leg bands to make females "attractive" and green bands to make them "unattractive" (unbanded females were controls) as previous research suggests that zebra finches prefer red colors over green in mating contexts. We collected blood from males before and after "speed-dating" trials to measure changes in plasma T and analyzed male courtship behaviors from trial video recordings. The likelihood of plasma T increasing after a trial was significantly greater in males who were with red-banded females compared to control females, suggesting males may find them more attractive than green or control females. Additionally, independent of band color, males who exhibited greater T differences initiated courtship sooner and spent more time closest to females. However, courtship initiation and time spent near females were not correlated with band color. Overall, our results suggest that female attractiveness can influence male reproductive physiology, but the presence of a female may trigger male courtship behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137228-Thumbnail Image.png

Prenatal Testing and Behavioral Genetics

Description

The knowledge of medical genetics is currently used with prenatal testing, and the advancements in the field of behavioral genetics may someday allow for its use with prenatal testing as

The knowledge of medical genetics is currently used with prenatal testing, and the advancements in the field of behavioral genetics may someday allow for its use with prenatal testing as well. The use of prenatal procedures for medical phenotypes has its own implications and should these techniques be used for behavioral phenotypes, such implications can also apply. The complexity of behavior in terms of the factors that may affect it, along with the way it is conceptualized and perceived, adds further implications for prenatal testing of it. In this thesis, I discuss the qualitative, quantitative, and historical facets of prenatal testing for medical and behavioral phenotypes and the undercurrent of eugenics. I do so by presenting an example of the medical phenotype (cystic fibrosis) as a case for envisioning the implications of medical phenotypes before delving into examples of behavioral phenotypes (aggression, impulsivity, extraversion, and neuroticism) in order to explore the implications shared with those for medical phenotypes as well as those unique to it. These implications then set the foundation for a discussion of eugenics, and the considerations for how behavioral genetics with prenatal testing may give way to a modern form of it.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

155317-Thumbnail Image.png

The function of tyramine in the mouse uterine horn

Description

Pregnancy and childbirth are both natural occurring events, but still little is known about the signaling mechanisms that induce contractions. Throughout the world, premature labor occurs in 12% of

Pregnancy and childbirth are both natural occurring events, but still little is known about the signaling mechanisms that induce contractions. Throughout the world, premature labor occurs in 12% of all pregnancies with 36% of infant deaths resulting from preterm related causes. Even though the cause of preterm labor can vary, understanding alternative signaling pathways, which affect muscle contraction, could provide additional treatment options in stopping premature labor. The uterus is composed of smooth muscle, which is innervated, with a plexus of nerves that cover the muscle fibers. Smooth muscle can be stimulated or modulated by many sources such as neurotransmitters [i.e. dopamine], hormones [i.e. estrogen], peptides [i.e. oxytocin] and amines. This study focuses on the biogenic monoamine tyramine, which is produced in the tyrosine catecholamine biosynthesis pathway. Tyramine is known to be associated with peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, increased respiration, elevated blood glucose and the release of norepinephrine. This research has found tyramine, and its specific receptor TAAR1, to be localized within mouse uterus and that this monoamine can induce uterine contractions at levels similar to oxytocin.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

156767-Thumbnail Image.png

Consequences of Negative Energy Balance on Avian Reproductive Physiology: Endocrine and Metabolic Mediators

Description

Reproduction is energetically costly and seasonal breeding has evolved to capitalize on predictable increases in food availability. The synchronization of breeding with periods of peak food availability is especially important

Reproduction is energetically costly and seasonal breeding has evolved to capitalize on predictable increases in food availability. The synchronization of breeding with periods of peak food availability is especially important for small birds, most of which do not store an extensive amount of energy. The annual change in photoperiod is the primary environmental cue regulating reproductive development, but must be integrated with supplementary cues relating to local energetic conditions. Photoperiodic regulation of the reproductive neuroendocrine system is well described in seasonally breeding birds, but the mechanisms that these animals use to integrate supplementary cues remain unclear. I hypothesized that (a) environmental cues that negatively affect energy balance inhibit reproductive development by acting at multiple levels along the reproductive endocrine axis including the hypothalamus (b) that the availability of metabolic fuels conveys alterations in energy balance to the reproductive system. I investigated these hypotheses in male house finches, Haemorhous mexicanus, caught in the wild and brought into captivity. I first experimentally reduced body condition through food restriction and found that gonadal development and function are inhibited and these changes are associated with changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). I then investigated this neuroendocrine integration and found that finches maintain reproductive flexibility through modifying the release of accumulated GnRH stores in response to energetic conditions. Lastly, I investigated the role of metabolic fuels in coordinating reproductive responses under two different models of negative energy balance, decreased energy intake (food restriction) and increased energy expenditure (high temperatures). Exposure to high temperatures lowered body condition and reduced food intake. Reproductive development was inhibited under both energy challenges, and occurred with decreased gonadal gene expression of enzymes involved in steroid synthesis. Minor changes in fuel utilization occurred under food restriction but not high temperatures. My results support the hypothesis that negative energy balance inhibits reproductive development through multilevel effects on the hypothalamus and gonads. These studies are among the first to demonstrate a negative effect of high temperatures on reproductive development in a wild bird. Overall, the above findings provide important foundations for investigations into adaptive responses of breeding in energetically variable environments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

157036-Thumbnail Image.png

Water as a physiological currency: hydration state impacts immune function, metabolic substrates, and reproductive investment

Description

Environmental changes are occurring at an unprecedented rate, and these changes will undoubtedly lead to alterations in resource availability for many organisms. To effectively predict the implications of such changes,

Environmental changes are occurring at an unprecedented rate, and these changes will undoubtedly lead to alterations in resource availability for many organisms. To effectively predict the implications of such changes, it is critical to better understand how organisms have adapted to coping with seasonally limited resources. The vast majority of previous work has focused on energy balance as the driver of changes in organismal physiology. While energy is clearly a vital currency, other resources can also be limited and impact physiological functions. Water is essential for life as it is the main constituent of cells, tissues, and organs. Yet, water has received little consideration for its role as a currency that impacts physiological functions. Given the importance of water to most major physiological systems, I investigated how water limitations interact with immune function, metabolism, and reproductive investment, an almost entirely unexplored area. Using multiple species and life stages, I demonstrated that dehydrated animals typically have enhanced innate immunity, regardless of whether the dehydration is a result of seasonal water constraints, water deprivation in the lab, or high physiological demand for water. My work contributed greatly to the understanding of immune function dynamics and lays a foundation for the study of hydration immunology as a component of the burgeoning field of ecoimmunology. While a large portion of my dissertation focused on the interaction between water balance and immune function, there are many other physiological processes that may be impacted by water restrictions. Accordingly, I recently expanded the understanding of how reproductive females can alter metabolic substrates to reallocate internal water during times of water scarcity, an important development in our knowledge of reproductive investments. Overall, by thoroughly evaluating implications and responses to water limitations, my dissertation, when combined previous acquired knowledge on food limitation, will enable scientists to better predict the impacts of future climate change, where, in many regions, rainfall events are forecasted to be less reliable, resulting in more frequent drought.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

152148-Thumbnail Image.png

Community-based development: scaling up the correct use of misoprostol at home births in Afghanistan

Description

Globally, more than 350 000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy and childbirth (UNFPA, 2011). Nearly 99% of these, according to World Health Organization (WHO) trends (2010) occur in

Globally, more than 350 000 women die annually from complications during pregnancy and childbirth (UNFPA, 2011). Nearly 99% of these, according to World Health Organization (WHO) trends (2010) occur in the developing world outside of a hospital setting with limited resources including emergency care (WHO, 2012; UNFPA, 2011). The most prevalent cause of death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), accounting for 25% of deaths according to WHO statistics (2012). Conditions in Afghanistan are reflective of the scope and magnitude of the problem. In Afghanistan, maternal mortality is thought to be among the highest in the world. The Afghan Mortality Survey (AMS) data implies that one Afghan woman dies about every 2 hours from pregnancy-related causes (AMS, 2010). Lack of empowerment, education and access to health care resources increase a woman's risk of dying during pregnancy (AMS, 2010). This project aims to investigate the prospects of scaling-up the correct use of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, to treat PPH in developing countries where skilled assistance and resources are scant. As there has been little published on the lessons learned from programs already in place, this study is experience-driven, based on the knowledge of industry experts. This study employs a concurrent triangulation approach to synthesize quantitative data obtained from previous studies with qualitative information gathered through the testimonies of key personnel who participated in pilot programs involving misoprostol. There are many obstacles to scaling-up training initiatives in Afghanistan and other low-resource areas. The analysis concludes that the most crucial factors for scaling-up community-based programs include: more studies analyzing lessons learns from community driven approaches; stronger partnerships with community health care workers; overcoming barriers like association with abortion, misuse and product issues; and a heightened global and community awareness of the severity of PPH without treatment. These results have implications for those who actively work in Afghanistan to promote maternal health and other countries that may use Afghanistan's work as a blueprint for reducing maternal mortality through community-based approaches. Keywords: Afghanistan, community-based interventions, community-driven, maternal mortality, MDG5, misoprostol, postpartum hemorrhage, reproduction, scale-up

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149674-Thumbnail Image.png

Differentiating between reproductions and original artworks: the influence of style and sequence

Description

In times of fast paced technology, the ability to differentiate quality differences between a reproduction and an original work of art has new urgency. The use of digital reproductions

In times of fast paced technology, the ability to differentiate quality differences between a reproduction and an original work of art has new urgency. The use of digital reproductions in the classroom is a useful and convenient teaching tool, but can convey visual distortions specifically in regards to texture, size, and color. Art educators often struggle to achieve a balance between incorporating the use of digital technology and fostering an appreciation for experiences with original artworks. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which Dewey's theory of experiential learning explains how thoroughly high school students differentiate between a reproduction and original artwork. This study also explored the influences of painting style (realistic or semi-abstract) and sequence on a student's ability to identify the differences and select a preference between the reproduction and original artwork. To obtain insight into how a student is able to differentiate between a reproduction and an original artwork, this study engaged 27 high school student participants in viewing a digital reproduction and the respective original artwork of one realistic and one semi-abstract painting at the ASU Art Museum. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data suggests that sequence influences a student's ability to differentiate between a reproduction and original artwork. Students who saw reproductions before viewing the originals, demonstrated a more comprehensive understanding of the differences between the two presentation formats. Implications of this study include the recommendation that art educators address definitional issues surrounding the terms original and reproduction in their teaching, and consider collaborative ways to prepare students for meaningful experiences with original artworks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011