Matching Items (13)

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Strangers in the Fold: The Jewish Minority During the Creation of Visigothic Spain

Description

Judaism had always been treated as a religio licita in the Roman Empire. With the rise of Christianity, the law curtailed the proselytism of Judaism, but Jews retained their citizenshi

Judaism had always been treated as a religio licita in the Roman Empire. With the rise of Christianity, the law curtailed the proselytism of Judaism, but Jews retained their citizenship and were permitted to practice their religion with certain restrictions. The Visigothic Kingdom in Spain and Gaul inherited this legal framework, but following the conversion of the Goths to Catholicism in 589, Jews faced the first state-sanctioned forced conversion around 615. Resistance to conversion led to a series of different policies that addressed the problem of apostacy, insincere conversion, and secret adherence to Judaism. The two main drivers behind this shift in policy were, on the one hand, an attempt by the crown to compensate its lack of sufficient forces to enforce its will throughout the country, which led to attempts to use other "softer" kinds of power, including an attempt to unite the kingdom around a Catholic-Gothic identity that necessarily excluded Jews. On the other hand, a focus by the Spanish Church at creating a Christian unity in anticipation of the Second Coming, organized around the thought of Isidore of Seville, which included the conversion of Jews as part of its program. The forced conversion policy was not successful, with only limited enforcement available. Jews engaged in several strategies to evade conversion, including voluntary exile and deception of the authorities. They sometimes enlisted the help of their Christian neighbors successfully. Following a relaxation of the conversion policy in the 620s, a significant class of Jewish apostates and outwardly Christian "prevaricators" (so-called by the Church) emerged. In a series of Church councils in the 620s and 630s, this problem was addressed head-on, with a variety of strategies taken, including legal and social pressure on converts, taking away the children of Jews to be raised as Christians, the use of an oath or placitum, and a second forced conversion in 637-638 which offered practicing Jews the option of baptism or exile. Conversion of the Jews and the problem of how to handle prevaricators continued to vex the Visigothic rulers down to the end of the kingdom in 711. Evidence does suggest that despite the pressure, Jews continued to live in Spain as Jews throughout the period. However, the laws created in this time, both secular and canonical, exerted a great deal of influence throughout the medieval period. Moreover, these events laid the foundations of later anti-Jewish rioting and expulsions from Spain in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Ocupado/a: A Comparison of Perceptions and Marketing Appeals in Spain and the US

Description

International marketing involves a tricky balance between appealing to foreign cultural values while still creating an authentic message, without using stereotypes or relying on complex cultural notions that might be

International marketing involves a tricky balance between appealing to foreign cultural values while still creating an authentic message, without using stereotypes or relying on complex cultural notions that might be misunderstood. American and Spanish cultures have famously different paces of life: Americans are thought to value busyness, while Spaniards are thought to prefer leisure time. We conduct two studies to determine to what extent these values hold true among Spanish and American students, and whether these values impact students’ perceptions of marketing messages. The results suggest that the hypothesized values of busyness and leisure time are true, but appealing to these deep and complicated values through marketing does not always work. Globalization is causing consumer preferences around the world to converge, and attempting to apply specific cultural values to new global products in marketing communications can easily backfire. We recommend that instead of attempting to appeal to the cultural values of each international audience, advertisers should consider a more standardized approach by positioning new products similarly across the globe, especially to younger consumers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A Comparison of Public Relations Ethics in Spain and the United States

Description

This paper aims to assess potential similarities and differences in the way that public relations professionals approach ethics in Spain and The United States. The approach taken for this study

This paper aims to assess potential similarities and differences in the way that public relations professionals approach ethics in Spain and The United States. The approach taken for this study was first a thematic analysis of industry-accepted codes of ethics. These were the PRSA Code of Ethics from the United States and the ADECEC and Dircom codes of ethics from Spain. Although the codes provide a basis for a basic analysis, it is hard to say how public relations professionals implement ethical practices in their work solely based on codes of ethics. To further study the ethics in practice, interviews with public relations professionals from a 2012 trip to Madrid were transcribed and analyzed for key themes. To assess ethics in practice in the United States, public relations blog posts related to ethics were analyzed for key themes. The history of public relations in Spain is much shorter than in the United States The histories of the and cultural differences may be the cause of some of the differences in ethics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

For the Love of the Game: A Documentary Around the Soccer Culture in Spain

Description

For the Love of the Game is a 15-minute documentary highlighting what the culture of soccer is like in Spain. Filmed completely in Valencia, Spain, this short film shows the

For the Love of the Game is a 15-minute documentary highlighting what the culture of soccer is like in Spain. Filmed completely in Valencia, Spain, this short film shows the actual atmosphere of everyday soccer. People of all ages and backgrounds give depth into what it's like to grow up in Spain with and fall in love with the game.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Marketing Marcas: Presence and Perception of the Samsung and Apple Brands in Spain

Description

This study examines the differences in presence and perception of the Samsung and Apple brands in Spain compared to the United States. Primary research was collected on-site in Spain and

This study examines the differences in presence and perception of the Samsung and Apple brands in Spain compared to the United States. Primary research was collected on-site in Spain and comparatively analyzed to experiences in the United States from the perspective of an American citizen. Qualitative data in the form of observations and interviews was collected as well as extensive secondary research. The study will conclude international implications of these two brands in Spain.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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El Camino De Santiago: Pilgrimage in the Modern Era

Description

The document explores the experience of the modern pilgrim on the Camino de Santiago, a medieval pilgrimage that spans the length of Spain. The document recalls experiences of the pilgrim

The document explores the experience of the modern pilgrim on the Camino de Santiago, a medieval pilgrimage that spans the length of Spain. The document recalls experiences of the pilgrim through a series of episodic reflections. The document is written in travelogue style with the intended purpose of entertainment and education. Content includes the comparison of medieval pilgrims to contemporary examples of pilgrimage. In addition, the document explores possible motivations for pilgrimage in the modern era. Prominent topics that are explored are pilgrimage in the secular community and pilgrimage, pilgrimage and nationalism, and pilgrimage post-recession.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Health Implications From Wastewater Reuse

Description

The study examines cross-cultural perceptions of wastewater reuse from 282 participants from four global sites representing varied levels of socio-economic and political development from the Global North and Global South:

The study examines cross-cultural perceptions of wastewater reuse from 282 participants from four global sites representing varied levels of socio-economic and political development from the Global North and Global South: Spain, New Zealand, Fiji, and Guatemala. The data comes from the Global Ethnohydrology Survey conducted by the School of Human Evolution and Social Change during the summer of 2013. The Global Ethnohydrology Study is a transdisciplinary multi-year research initiative that examines the range of variation in local ecological knowledge of water issues, also known as "ethnohydrology." Participants were asked about their willingness, level of disgust, and concern with using treated wastewater for various daily activities. Additionally, they were asked to draw schematic representations of how wastewater should be treated to become drinkable again. Using visual content analysis, the drawings were coded for a variety of treatment levels and specific treatment processes. Conclusions about the perceived health implications from wastewater reuse that can stem from drinking treated wastewater were made. The relationship between humans and wastewater is one that has many direct social and health impacts on communities at large. In reaction to global limitations of freshwater, wastewater serves as a valuable resource to tap into. This research examines the cross-cultural public health concerns about treated wastewater in order to draw conclusions that can aid in strategic implementation of advocacy and public education about wastewater reuse.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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From Fascism to Socialism: Liberalization and De-liberalization Trends of Abortion Policy of Spain

Description

Abstract: This project will examine the shifts in government abortion policy of Spain since World War II, in efforts to answer the causal question :Why has Spain so dramatically reversed

Abstract: This project will examine the shifts in government abortion policy of Spain since World War II, in efforts to answer the causal question :Why has Spain so dramatically reversed its abortion law mandates from one of the most liberal in Europe to one of the most restrictive? Spain's abortion policy is unique due to opposing forces between the Catholic Church and the socialist government and its universal health care policy. One must examine other historical and social factors to understand this policy. The purpose of this project is to understand how has the abortion policy of Spain (regarding its criminalization of women who receive abortion as well as those who perform them) changed over the last fifty years (approximately since the end of World War II). It will also examine what roles factors such as religion, culture, gender equality, and politics played in the development of these statures. Finally, the study will research the main groups that have been involved in this issue in the last fifty years and what their arguments are to support their opinions. Methods used to investigate this policy and its history of the criminalization of abortion policy in Spain since World War II will include a combination of literature review, government document review, and field research in Spain.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Craving Community: Lessons on Quality of Life From a Semester in Spain

Description

“¡No hay problemas en España! (There are no problems in Spain!) My professor exclaimed, grinning at his American students’ first day jitters. I arrived in Granada, Spain on January 7,

“¡No hay problemas en España! (There are no problems in Spain!) My professor exclaimed, grinning at his American students’ first day jitters. I arrived in Granada, Spain on January 7, 2012 and instantly noticed a dramatic shift in priorities; the term “quality of life” took on an entirely new identity. Quality of life studies have become increasingly popular, and many researchers have realized there are more meaningful ways to measure the wellbeing of a community that transcends gross domestic product. Instead of merely measuring financial progress, quality of life studies emphasize that communities rich in health and happiness may be more valuable to its residents and the world than those only concerned with financial wealth. The United Nations Development program takes life expectancy into account, but not the quality of the years lived (Schimmel, 2009). As long as it is a formal economic interaction, gross domestic product accounts for it, including negative aspects of a community like natural disasters and divorce (McKibben, 2007). “Under the current system... the most ‘economically productive citizen’ is a cancer patient who totals his car on his way to meet with his divorce lawyer” (McKibben, 2007, p. 28). If the polluted air causes higher rates of cancer in a population, the costs paid into the economy for medical treatment transfer right into our GDP. GDP does not distinguish between the economic transactions that improve our lives and those that hurt them. The graph below displays the false yet passively accepted idea that an increase in economic development necessarily leads to a higher sense of wellbeing. Although GDP per capita in the United States has risen threefold since 1960, happiness levels have not changed (Helliwell, Layard, & Sachs, 2012), and as the ultimate goal of human beings (Bergheim, 2006), we should be dedicating more research to accomplishing happiness, rather than a higher income. In fact, money only correlates with happiness up to a certain point, and depending on which researcher you ask, that number is between $10,000 per capita income (McKibben, 2007) and $50,000 per capita income (Shadyac, Shimizu, & Belic, 2011). Individuals included in Forbes magazine’s wealthiest Americans list have the same happiness as the Amish in Pennsylvania, and only slightly higher happiness than Swedes, as well as Masai tribesmen (McKibben, 2007). This phenomenon is worldwide, as Costa Ricans are happier than the Japanese and the French are equally satisfied as the Venezuelans (McKibben, 2007).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

Migrants in Transit: How the Migration Crisis Impacted Morocco

Description

The European Migration crisis saw the deadliest mass exodus of people in the 21st century. The crisis impacted and is still impacting Morocco politically, socially, and its economic landscape. American

The European Migration crisis saw the deadliest mass exodus of people in the 21st century. The crisis impacted and is still impacting Morocco politically, socially, and its economic landscape. American media focused heavily on the Syrian refugee migration from the Middle East through the Balkans to European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and France but failed to show the complex migration issues in North Africa, specifically Morocco. In continuum with the refugee crisis in Syria, push factors like economic disparity, human rights violations and civil unrest has forced thousands of Sub Saharan Africans to search for a new life somewhere else. This multimedia project serves to highlight the experiences of transit migrants in Morocco as they wait to make the journey across the Mediterranean Sea. This creative project utilized photojournalism to tell four distinct stories: Immigration Policies between Morocco and Spain, Migrants and the church, a profile on a migrant, and a photo collection of unaccompanied migrant youth. The purpose of this creative project was to show a different perspective of migrants and their experiences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05