Matching Items (8)

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Money or Mercy? What Really Drives US/Middle Eastern Relationships?

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"The rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened".
- John F Kennedy

For over a century now, the United States has publicly professed a

"The rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened".
- John F Kennedy

For over a century now, the United States has publicly professed a commitment to upholding human rights around the world, yet to this day economically supports numerous dictatorships and undemocratic regimes that flout human rights on a daily basis. The rhetoric of American politicians would imply that human rights and democracy are a priority in America's foreign policy, yet given US support for autocracies, both of these principles seem forgotten. If not respect for democracy and human rights, what is truly influencing America's relationship with these countries? I hypothesize that a country's resource availability will be the best predictive factor for its economic relationship with the US, followed by its military involvement with the US, and finally, human rights records will be the least predictive factor. The study found that a country's military cooperation with the US is the best predictive factor regarding our economic relationship, resource availability comes with a weak correlation, and human rights abuses very rarely substantively impact our economic relationships.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Vanguard of Collective Virtue: Constitutional Illiberalism in the Muslim Brotherhood

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I argue that the most important value put in jeopardy by the Muslim Brotherhood's rise to power in post-Mubarak Egypt is not democracy but liberalism. Further, I find that that

I argue that the most important value put in jeopardy by the Muslim Brotherhood's rise to power in post-Mubarak Egypt is not democracy but liberalism. Further, I find that that the lens of religion is insufficient to explain and understand the Brotherhood's illiberal tendencies. A review of the group's rhetoric, along with an examination of the literature on collectivism and individualism, reveals that the Brotherhood's collectivist worldview is at the heart of its opposition to liberalism, an inherently individualistic value. I conclude that viewing the Brotherhood as a movement motivated by a collective sense of morality would provide policymakers and academics with greater insight into the group's behavior and policy positions, facilitating deeper comprehension and greater predictability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Affective Power of Revolutionary Art in Cairo, Egypt

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This thesis is an account and reading of the taking-place of revolutionary art in Cairo accentuating the affective power of revolutionary spaces, specifically Tahrir and Etehadeya Square(s). In analyzing Cairo's

This thesis is an account and reading of the taking-place of revolutionary art in Cairo accentuating the affective power of revolutionary spaces, specifically Tahrir and Etehadeya Square(s). In analyzing Cairo's street art in terms of its affective force, this paper illustrates the interconnectivity of place, art and event within a revolutionary context. The understandings of Cairo reflected in this paper are temporal, brought to light by happenings of the revolution witnessed during two extended visits and discussed through ethnographic research, art and geographic analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Damietta

Description

"Damietta" is a graphic novel that tells the story of my grandparents, Aziza and Mostafa, and their separate journeys from Egypt to the United States to pursue an education. Using

"Damietta" is a graphic novel that tells the story of my grandparents, Aziza and Mostafa, and their separate journeys from Egypt to the United States to pursue an education. Using elements of color, form, and narrative style, the graphic novel seeks to put the reader into the perspective of a young immigrant seeking a future in an entirely new land. In completing this project, I had to interview my grandparents, illustrate 51 pages on a computer, transpose interviews into a first person story, and learn how to publish a book. As a result of this process, I learned it is wise to start early, make a consistent work schedule, and make multiple rounds of revisions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Failure of Islamism in the Middle East: Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Sudan

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Islamism, not Islam, is a wide-ranging school of political ideology. As defined by this Fred Hillday it is a “determined choice of an Islamic doctrine, rather than the simple fact

Islamism, not Islam, is a wide-ranging school of political ideology. As defined by this Fred Hillday it is a “determined choice of an Islamic doctrine, rather than the simple fact of being born Muslim.” The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt at its height was one of the most influential and largest Islamist political organizations, but as this thesis will show, its influenced has waned to the point of nonexistence. A large portion of this paper will focus on the history of the Muslim Brotherhood, its leading ideologues such as Hasan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb, as well as its political strategies that allowed it to become the most powerful organized political force in the country at the time of Mubarak’s ousting. The political experience of Islamists in Morocco, Tunisia and Sudan will be compared to the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Moroccan and Tunisian Islamists rebranded themselves as Muslim Democrats in parliamentary political systems post-Arab Spring. Sudan, which saw an Islamist autocracy similar to what the Brotherhood wanted to effect in Egypt, has become a failed state. The 2013 Coup that ended the Brotherhood and Morsi’s time in power also marked the end of the kind of Islamism the Brotherhood promoted, or at least the end of its political popularity in the mainstream across the Middle East.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Whispers of sin, wisps of demons: the origins of the logismoi and telõnia

Description

An early Christian construct which had the recently-deceased soul endures a series of judicial proceedings by demons, the telonia has survived as a folk belief in Orthodox nations such as

An early Christian construct which had the recently-deceased soul endures a series of judicial proceedings by demons, the telonia has survived as a folk belief in Orthodox nations such as Russia and Ukraine. The telonia construct is a controversial one in Orthodoxy, however, as discussions of the construct's origins often break down into polemical debate regarding the ontological reality of the telonia. This thesis, as its primary goal, investigates the origins and early development of the telonia in a methodical, scholarly manner. It adduces texts from ancient Egypt to propose that the origins of the telonia extend to the earliest written phases of the Egyptian religion. Secondarily, this thesis investigates the origins of the logismoi: intentions which demons introduce into human minds to seduce them to sin. In 1952, Morton Bloomfield posited that the logismoi ultimately evolved from the telonia. Bloomfield's assertion has become the secondary inquiry of this thesis: to wit, whether the logismoi construct evolved from the telonia. This study employs textual criticism of sources in Greek, Latin, and Coptic to answer the two queries. The evidence indicates that the telonia evolved from three previous constructs over the course of at least 2500 years. It also indicates that neither the telonia nor any of its ancestral constructs influenced the creation of the logismoi.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Regional famine patterns of the last millennium as influenced by aggregated climate teleconnections

Description

ABSTRACT

Famine is the result of a complex set of environmental and social factors. Climate conditions are established as environmental factors contributing to famine occurrence, often through teleconnective patterns. This dissertation

ABSTRACT

Famine is the result of a complex set of environmental and social factors. Climate conditions are established as environmental factors contributing to famine occurrence, often through teleconnective patterns. This dissertation is designed to investigate the combined influence on world famine patterns of teleconnections, specifically the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Southern Oscillation (SO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), or regional climate variations such as the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM). The investigation is three regional case studies of famine patterns specifically, Egypt, the British Isles, and India.

The first study (published in Holocene) employs the results of a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) yielding a SO-NAO eigenvector to predict major Egyptian famines between AD 1049-1921. The SO-NAO eigenvector (1) successfully discriminates between the 5-10 years preceding a famine and the other years, (2) predicts eight of ten major famines, and (3) correctly identifies fifty out of eighty events (63%) of food availability decline leading up to major famines.

The second study investigates the impact of the NAO, PDO, SO, and AMO on 63 British Isle famines between AD 1049 and 1914 attributed to climate causes in historical texts. Stepwise Regression Analysis demonstrates that the 5-year lagged NAO is the primary teleconnective influence on famine patterns; it successfully discriminates 73.8% of weather-related famines in the British Isles from 1049 to 1914.

The final study identifies the aggregated influence of the NAO, SO, PDO, and SASM on 70 Indian famines from AD 1049 to 1955. PCA results in a NAO-SOI vector and SASM vector that predicts famine conditions with a positive NAO and negative SO, distinct from the secondary SASM influence. The NAO-famine relationship is consistently the strongest; 181 of 220 (82%) of all famines occurred during positive NAO years.

Ultimately, the causes of famine are complex and involve many factors including societal and climatic. This dissertation demonstrates that climate teleconnections impact famine patterns and often the aggregates of multiple climate variables hold the most significant climatic impact. These results will increase the understanding of famine patterns and will help to better allocate resources to alleviate future famines.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Anti-sexual harassment activism in Egypt:: transnationalism and the cultural politics of community mobilization

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Sexual harassment has emerged as a widespread problem facing women in public space in Egypt. Activism to combat sexual harassment began in 2005. However, just prior to and in the

Sexual harassment has emerged as a widespread problem facing women in public space in Egypt. Activism to combat sexual harassment began in 2005. However, just prior to and in the years following the January 25, 2011 Egyptian Revolution, which witnessed an increase in the collective sexual harassment, assault and rape of women, this activism has increased. Subsequently, scholarly attention to sexual harassment and public sexual violence has also expanded. Much of the attention in scholarly analyses has been directed toward politically motivated sexual violence, focused on understanding the state commissioning of sexual violence against female protestors to drive them from protest participation. There is an emerging critique of activist approaches that seems to ignore the politicalized nature of sexual harassment to focus instead on “cultural” targets. The early work of the Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights (ECWR) and current work of HarassMap have been criticized for depoliticizing sexual harassment by failing to include an analysis of state-commissioned sexual violence in their work. Similarly, both have been accused of expanding the scope of the security state by calling for increased policing of public space to protect women from “culturally-bad” men.

With data collected through one year of participant observation with HarassMap, interviews with activists from eleven anti-sexual harassment initiatives and advocacy NGOs, and community-level surveys with non-activist individuals, this dissertation argues that “cultural” work undertaken through the community-based approaches by entities like ECWR and HarassMap is, in fact, an inherently political process, in which political engagement represents both an attempt to change political culture and state practice and a negotiative process involving changing patriarchal gender norms that underpin sexual harassment at a society-wide level. New conceptualizations of sexual harassment promoted by anti-sexual harassment initiatives and NGOs in Egypt frame it as a form of violence against women, and attempt to make sexual harassment an offense that may be criminalized. Yet, this dissertation contends there is a tension between activist and widespread public understandings of sexual harassment, predicated on the incomplete framing of sexual harassment as a form of violence.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016