Matching Items (45)

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Homegrown Radicals: American Fascist Movements in the Interwar Years, 1918-1941

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On October 28, 1922, Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Party marched on Rome. A reactionary political movement with a nebulous ideology, the Fascists gained power the following day when King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. Over the

On October 28, 1922, Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Party marched on Rome. A reactionary political movement with a nebulous ideology, the Fascists gained power the following day when King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. Over the following decade, generic fascist movements would rise all over Europe, most prominently in Germany with the Nazi Party, and in Austria, Romania, Hungary, and Spain. Minor movements would appear in a great number of other European countries, including France, Great Britain, Portugal, and Greece. Most studies of fascism and totalitarianism look at those ideologies as a primarily European phenomenon, thereby overlooking the numerous fascist movements that appeared simultaneously in the United States. American historians similarly tend to downplay the role of fascism in United States history, relegating such groups and their “paranoid style” to the lunatic fringe of the political spectrum.
American fascist groups, while varied in motives, methods, and vision of a future society, recruited hundreds of thousands of members in the interwar years from either specific ethnic and immigrant groups or from among “native” Americans. Though most of these groups evaporated following the American entry into the Second World War and thus never came close to achieving any of their wide-ranging political goals, much of their literature and ideology exists and continues to be diffused among present-day members of the far right.
This study seeks to place American fascist movements within the context of their own time, as having emerged alongside European fascism from the same cultural antecedents. In doing so, this study analyzes three of the largest “native” American fascist groups – the Black Legion, the Silver Shirts, and the Christian Front – and applies a theoretical model of fascism for comparison to generic European fascist movements. The thesis argues that in viewing fascism as the end result of a “cultural phenomenon,” as historian Zeev Sternhell has argued regarding European fascism, American fascism can similarly be seen as the culmination of several cultural, social, and intellectual antecedents rather than an obscure political aberration. By measuring the significance of American fascist movements only by their (lack of) political effectiveness, historians have overlooked many of the broader implications of such groups not only having existed but also having gained such a large following of adherents.

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2019-05

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Comparison of Widespread State Variation in Optometric Care

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Optometry is a field in the United States dedicated to analyzing the health of eyes and offering corrective lenses and/or treatments to improve a patient’s ocular health and vision. Since its origin in the U.S. in the late 19th century,

Optometry is a field in the United States dedicated to analyzing the health of eyes and offering corrective lenses and/or treatments to improve a patient’s ocular health and vision. Since its origin in the U.S. in the late 19th century, the field of optometry has been met with strong opposition from the medical community, ophthalmologists in particular. This ongoing feud between optometrists and ophthalmologists, medical doctors who also specialize in eye health and perform eye surgeries, continues today as ophthalmologists push back against optometrists’ attempts to expand their scope of practice. With this expansion to include certain eye surgeries, it would save patients both time and money. This is just one factor impacting patients, with another being the widely varied state laws surrounding eye health. Procedures optometrists are able to perform is decided by state laws, which leads to vast discrepancies. Optometrists in one state can perform laser eye surgeries, while optometrists in a nearby state cannot even provide simple treatments for ocular diseases they diagnosis. In this study, three states were analyzed to showcase these variations in possible treatment and demonstrate both the positive and negative impacts they are having on patients. First was Massachusetts which has one of the best medical care systems in the U.S., but one of the worst vision care. As the only state to not allow optometrists to treat glaucoma and one of two states to not allow optometrists to prescribe medications for patients, these limitations have caused patients the inconvenience of having to then visit an ophthalmologist for treatment which adds additional costs and delay in treatment which can cause the conditions to possibly worsen. Second was Oklahoma which was the first U.S. state to allow optometrists to perform laser eye surgeries in 1998. This legislation expanded Oklahoma residents access to treatment as before patients would have to travel to other cities or counties to visit one of the few ophthalmologists in the state. Lastly was Maine which in 2015 passed legislation to allow optometrists to regain control of their field from vision insurance companies who can no longer dictate fees patients are charged if the insurance companies will not cover it. This study concluded that there needs to be a universal vision care system across the U.S. that includes expansion of practice for optometrists and allow them to be in control of their own field, not the state government or vision insurance companies.

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2019-05

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The Italian Luxury Fashion Industry: Cross-Cultural Challenges for American Partners in the Evolving Global Luxury Retail Environment

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The Italian luxury fashion industry is home to many of the world's top fashion houses and is intricately connected to traditional Italian cultural values. Over the past several decades, Italian luxury fashion has been highly desirable throughout markets across the

The Italian luxury fashion industry is home to many of the world's top fashion houses and is intricately connected to traditional Italian cultural values. Over the past several decades, Italian luxury fashion has been highly desirable throughout markets across the world due to its exquisite design and craftsmanship. Since the conclusion of World War II the Italian luxury fashion industry has continuously developed and been highly successful in foreign markets, notably including the United States. This study explores cross-cultural management in the Italian luxury fashion industry from an American perspective. The report begins with a brief history of the industry beginning in 1945 and extending into the early 2000s, a period characterized by tremendous growth domestically and abroad. Subsequently, three cross-cultural management frameworks are utilized to compare Italian and American culture values including Erin Meyer's "The Culture Map," Geert Hofstede's Psychological Framework, and Fons Trompenaars' Expansive Framework. This research serves as the foundation for the final component of the report detailing a cross-cultural management framework for American partners in the Italian luxury fashion industry. This framework reflects potential areas of cross-cultural conflict in addition to current trends within the industry, such as increasingly complex supply chains. The framework is divided into four sections \u2014 Strategic Leadership; Internationalization; Value Chains, Sustainability, and Innovation; and Exclusivity and the "Made in Italy" Label in a Global Economy. Along with the discussion of each component, mini case studies highlighting four of the leading companies in the market \u2014 Versace, Gucci, Prada, and Armani \u2014 are included. Each of these mini case studies provides a brief overview of the company and takes a unique perspective illustrating one or more components of the cross-cultural management practices essential to the successful operation of global fashion houses. The report concludes with three cross-cultural dimensions in which American managers should be especially vigilant when navigating the Italian luxury fashion industry including time orientation, task-based versus relationship-based trust, and neutral versus affective communication. The findings from this study are aimed at executive coaching and consulting environments due to the current lack of literature on the Italian luxury fashion industry.

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2018-05

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How Well Do You Know Your Neighbor? College Knowledge: Canada vs The United States

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As the world becomes more globalized, the role of geographic knowledge in everyday affairs grows. Notwithstanding this idea, previous research surveys indicate that young adults are geographically illiterate but little research has been done in the past decade to investigate

As the world becomes more globalized, the role of geographic knowledge in everyday affairs grows. Notwithstanding this idea, previous research surveys indicate that young adults are geographically illiterate but little research has been done in the past decade to investigate if this still holds true. In order to examine the current geographic literacy of young adults, American and Canadian college students were surveyed regarding geographic knowledge of their neighboring country. To do this, I made a trip to the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia to survey Canadian students in person. I also did in person surveys at Arizona State University to collect American students' knowledge. Both surveys were done with pen and paper and questions were either identical or similar in what geographic knowledge the question was testing the survey taker on (i.e what is the capital of Canada for American students and what is the Capital of the United States for Canadian students). Results indicated that despite being from different countries, both participant pools showed similar knowledge about their neighboring country with almost identical scores; American college students answered an average of 50% of the questions correct and Canadian students slightly above that at 51% of questions correct. Although the scores were similar, underneath the overall survey results was a lot of variety in the students' responses, particularly regarding the subject and questions each student pool excelled in. In conclusion, however, it seems that both Canadian students and American students struggled more with political geography than they did with cultural geography but are overall illiterate in geographical knowledge with only being able to answer half of the questions correct.

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2018-05

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Proportional Representation Electoral Systems and Minority Representation in the American Legislature: A Comparative Analysis of Potential Reforms

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In this paper I conduct a comparative analysis of how proportional representation electoral systems could affect the political representation of racial and ethnic minorities if adopted in America. In order to do this I first discuss the central ideas of

In this paper I conduct a comparative analysis of how proportional representation electoral systems could affect the political representation of racial and ethnic minorities if adopted in America. In order to do this I first discuss the central ideas of proportional representation in conjunction with a historical and contemporary view of the American electoral system. Using this discussion as a basic framework I enter a more in depth discussion about the pros and cons of PR systems, especially in so far as party lists, district magnitude, and links between constituent and representative. To better contextualize the American electoral system I then use case studies featuring New Zealand, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and Germany. These case studies discuss important aspects of each country's electoral system and how they have affected ethnic and racial minorities within those countries. Each case study concludes with an assessment of how a similar system might work if adopted in America which aims to inform a broader discussion about electoral reform. Finally I conclude with a discussion of my findings that recognizes how proportional representation systems open new pathways for minority representation, while still urging caution in viewing those systems as a straightforward solution to the chronic underrepresentation of America's ethnic and racial minorities in politics.

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2018-05

ERA in AZ

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This short documentary on the Equal Rights Amendment features attorney Dianne Post and State Representative Jennifer Jermaine, and it examines the fight for passage at the federal and state level. This film attempts to answer the following questions: What is

This short documentary on the Equal Rights Amendment features attorney Dianne Post and State Representative Jennifer Jermaine, and it examines the fight for passage at the federal and state level. This film attempts to answer the following questions: What is the ERA? What is its history? Why do we need it? How do we get it into the Constitution of the United States of America?

The text of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) states that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” The amendment was authored by Alice Paul and was first introduced into Congress in 1923. The ERA did not make much progress until 1970, when Representative Martha Griffiths from Michigan filed a discharge petition demanding that the ERA move out of the judiciary committee to be heard by the full United States House of Representatives. The House passed it and it went on to the Senate, where it was approved and sent to the states for ratification. By 1977, 35 states had voted to ratify the ERA, but it did not reach the 38 states-threshold required for ratification before the 1982 deadline set by Congress. More recently, Nevada ratified the ERA in March 2017, and Illinois followed suit in May 2018. On January 27th, 2020, Virginia finalized its ratification, making it the 38th state to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment.

Supporters of the ERA argue that we have reached the required goal of approval by 38 states. However, opponents may have at least two legal arguments to challenge this claim by ERA advocates. First, the deadline to ratify was 1982. Second, five states have voted to rescind their ratification since their initial approval. These political and legal challenges must be addressed and resolved before the ERA can be considered part of the United States Constitution. Nevertheless, ERA advocates continue to pursue certification. There are complicated questions to untangle here, to be sure, but by listening to a variety of perspectives and critically examining the historical and legal context, it may be possible to find some answers. Indeed, Arizona, which has yet to ratify the ERA, could play a vital role in the on-going fight for the ERA.

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2020-05

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Colin Kaepernick, Ethnocentrism, and Multiculturalism: Redefining Nationalism in the United States

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This paper explores whether American football player Colin Kaepernick and other athletes’ refusal in 2016 to acknowledge the national anthem symbolizes a form of nationalism in the United States. At first glance, the rising support of “un-American” acts that reject

This paper explores whether American football player Colin Kaepernick and other athletes’ refusal in 2016 to acknowledge the national anthem symbolizes a form of nationalism in the United States. At first glance, the rising support of “un-American” acts that reject traditional patriotism would imply that American nationalism is faltering. If one observes the colloquial understanding of nationalism as extreme commitment to a country, this may be true. But after closer examination, the pattern instead depicts a polarization of two distinct forms of nationalism — ethnocentric nationalism and what I call multicultural nationalism, both intensifying away from each other.
As opposed to colloquial understanding, there is no standard scholarly definition of nationalism, but it is widely seen as zeal over an identity that strives to manifest into an organized state. Despite this minimal consensus, nationalism is usually equated with an ethnocentric conception of the nation-state, what I recognize to be ethnocentric nationalism, the commitment to a linguistically, racially, and culturally likeminded nation. I argue that this traditional, ethnocentric understanding of nationalism is only one interpretation of nationalism. Ethnocentric nationalism has and continues to be in tension with a more recently established interpretation of the nation, which I call multicultural nationalism: the commitment to a country’s principles rather than to its racial, cultural, and religious ties.

A common acceptance of difference is growing in the United States as shown by Kaepernick’s public support in the face of patriotic conformity. This perspective draws from the United States’ ideological roots that argue for one nation made up of many, e pluribus unum, so that foreign backgrounds should not just be accepted but also embraced to form a more diverse nation. The passion for a progressive, multicultural America can be translated into its own movement of multicultural nationalism. In this context, the support for Kaepernick’s actions no longer appears to represent increased dissent from the United States, but instead seems to be an attempt to challenge ethnocentric nationalism’s claim to the nation.

This paper will begin by contrasting the reactions to Kaepernick’s protest and to protests before him in order to contend that nationalism is no longer characterized by only ethnocentric tradition. I will analyze theoretical studies on nationalism to dispute this common understanding that nationalism is solely ethnocentric. I will argue that nationalism, rather, is the intense manifestation of a community’s identity within a political state; the identity of which can be either ethnocentric or multicultural. The Kaepernick ordeal will be used to signify the greater division in the American public over whether a multicultural or ethnocentric conception of the nation should be supported in the United States. Lastly, this paper will observe how the Kaepernick protest suggests multicultural nationalism’s viability in today’s politically progressive environment, and how multiculturalism should embrace nationalism to advance its platform.

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2017-05

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Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction in the Dental Clinics of the Underserved Communities: A Systematic Literature Review

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The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in the articles found from the systematic review. PubMed was used

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in the articles found from the systematic review. PubMed was used to search the articles with the keywords categorized into 5 different groups, they were: dental/oral, underserved, patient satisfaction, services provided and America. The search resulted in 123 articles and after critical appraisal and review, 19 full text articles were determined to be fully relevant to this project. A table of summarized results from the articles was created and factors of satisfaction from the articles were translated into a category which then was categorize into broader category based on relatedness. Sub-categories that were mentioned at least five times in the articles were cost, insurance acceptance, communication, interpersonal skills, number of treatments, fear/worry/anxiety and pain. According to the findings, quality in terms of interaction and interpersonal relationship between patients and the dentists was most mentioned compared to other factors when it comes to patient satisfaction. Other factors mentioned were external factors, pain, continuity, access, cost, technical qualities, efficiency, convenience, availability and environment. The purpose of this study has been met. The results in this project suggest that dentists in underserved communities could focus on changing the way they deliver their service if they want to improve patient retention and satisfaction.

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2016-05

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The Future of Japan's Relations with China and the United States

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The rise of China over the last two decades has left the United States switching its focus from other areas of the world to the ever growing presence and influence coming from Asia in the spectrum of world politics. Many

The rise of China over the last two decades has left the United States switching its focus from other areas of the world to the ever growing presence and influence coming from Asia in the spectrum of world politics. Many countries in Eastern Asia are being forced to choose determine whether they want to strengthen their alliances with China, their most important economic partner, or the United States, which for most of these countries, has been their most impactful political partner. Japan has been put in the scenario of having incredibly strong ties with the United States, especially militarily, and having a long history of conflict with China, but needing to recognize the importance of China as a rising power. Simultaneously, Japan is working to increase their own global influence to match their economic strength. With the recent development in the change of Japan's constitutional self-defense and diversion from their traditional pacifist nature since adopting their constitution in 1947, the rest of the world is waiting to see what changes will be coming from Japan regarding military policy. The foreign policies that are in the relatively early development of shaping up between Japan, China and the United States that are heavily influenced by the current United States military presence in Japan and the Asian region, will have a significant impact on the global political system in the coming years.

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2016-05

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Prostitution Policy: Alternatives for the U.S.

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This thesis intends to identify various alternatives to current prostitution policy in the United States. Specifically, this paper focuses on the proposals of abolition, legalization, and decriminalization, as they are interpreted through feminist perspectives. Additionally, the effectiveness of each proposal

This thesis intends to identify various alternatives to current prostitution policy in the United States. Specifically, this paper focuses on the proposals of abolition, legalization, and decriminalization, as they are interpreted through feminist perspectives. Additionally, the effectiveness of each proposal is based on how well they would reduce the threat and perpetuation of violence, decrease the spread of venereal disease, and lower the rate of drug use amongst sex workers in the U.S. Each method is analyzed through the success and failure rates in the societies in which they have already been implemented. Ultimately, the conclusion is met that legalization would be the most effective and logical policy reform to ensure the safety of American sex workers.

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2014-12