Matching Items (30)

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Student perceptions of co-teaching: what do students think about co-teaching?

Description

Co-teaching is one of the most popular models for supporting students with disabilities in general education classrooms. In spite of this, there is a paucity of research on student perceptions of co-teaching. The purpose of this qualitative study was to

Co-teaching is one of the most popular models for supporting students with disabilities in general education classrooms. In spite of this, there is a paucity of research on student perceptions of co-teaching. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate student perceptions of co-teaching in a high school biology classroom. Over nine weeks, data was collected from students in a co-taught and traditional classroom through observations and focus groups. Qualitative content analysis identified three themes and eight categories which highlight student perceptions of co-teaching. Themes and categories that emerged were: 1) Environment which included the categories of availability of help, students feeling supported and normalcy of the classroom, 2) Instruction which included student engagement, lesson activity and teacher(s) role(s) and, 3) Relationships which included relationships between teacher(s) and student(s) and parity between teachers. Information from the study deepens researchers' and practitioners' understanding of how students perceive co-teaching and provide new avenues for future research and best practices.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Immersive media environments for special education: developing agency in communication for youth with autism

Description

This dissertation describes the development of a state-of-the-art immersive media environment and its potential to motivate high school youth with autism to vocally express themselves. Due to the limited availability of media environments in public education settings, studies on the

This dissertation describes the development of a state-of-the-art immersive media environment and its potential to motivate high school youth with autism to vocally express themselves. Due to the limited availability of media environments in public education settings, studies on the use of such systems in special education contexts are rare. A study called Sea of Signs utilized the Situated Multimodal Art Learning Lab (SMALLab), to present a custom-designed conversational scenario for pairs of youth with autism. Heuristics for building the scenario were developed following a 4-year design-based research approach that fosters social interaction, communication, and self-expression through embodied design. Sea of Signs implemented these heuristics through an immersive experience, supported by spatial and audio-visual feedback that helped clarify and reinforce students' vocal expressions within a partner-based conversational framework. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to determine the extent to which individuals exhibited observable change as a result of the activity in SMALLab. Teacher interviews were conducted prior to the experimental phase to identify each student's pattern of social interaction, communication, and problem-solving strategies in the classroom. Ethnographic methods and video coding were used throughout the experimental phase to assess whether there were changes in (a) speech duration per session and per turn, (b) turn-taking patterns, and (c) teacher prompting per session. In addition, teacher interviews were conducted daily after every SMALLab session to further triangulate the nature of behaviors observed in each session. Final teacher interviews were conducted after the experimental phase to collect data on possible transfer of behavioral improvements into students' classroom lives beyond SMALLab. Results from this study suggest that the activity successfully increased independently generated speech in some students, while increasing a focus on seeking out social partners in others. Furthermore, the activity indicated a number of future directions in research on the nature of voice and discourse, rooted in the use of aesthetics and phenomenology, to augment, extend, and encourage developments in directed communication skills for youth with autism.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Engineering-based problem solving strategies In AP calculus: an investigation into high school student performance on related rate free-response problems

Description

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions,

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple post-assessment model with three periods of data collection. Four high school calculus classes were selected for the study, with one class designated as the treatment and three as the controls. Measures for this study include a skills assessment, Related Rate word problem assessments, and a motivation problem solving survey. Data analysis utilized a mixed methods approach. Quantitative analysis consisted of descriptive and inferential methods utilizing nonparametric statistics for performance comparisons and structural equation modeling to determine the underlying structure of the problem solving motivation survey. Statistical results indicate that time on task was a major factor in enhanced performance between measurement time points 1 and 2. In the experimental classroom, the engineering design process as a problem solving strategy emerged as an important factor in demonstrating sustained achievement across the measurement time series when solving volumetric rates of change as compared to traditional problem solving strategies. In the control classrooms, where traditional problem solving strategies were emphasized, a greater percentage of students than in the experimental classroom demonstrated enhanced achievement from point 1 to 2, but showed decrease in achievement from point 2 to 3 in the measurement time series. Results from the problem solving motivation survey demonstrated that neither time on task nor instruction strategy produced any effect on student beliefs about and perceptions of problem solving. Qualitative error analysis showed that type of instruction had little effect on the type and number of errors committed, with the exception of procedural errors from performing a derivative and errors decoding the problem statement. Results demonstrated that students who engaged in the engineering design-based committed a larger number of decoding errors specific to Pythagorean type Related Rate problems; while students who engaged in routine problem solving did not sustain their ability to correctly differentiate a volume equation over time. As a whole, students committed a larger number of misused data errors than other types of errors. Where, misused data errors are the discrepancy between the data as given in a problem and how the student used the data in problem solving.

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Date Created
2012

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Construction of an instructional design model for undergraduate chemistry laboratory design: a Delphi approach

Description

The purpose of this study was to construct an instructional systems design model for chemistry teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level to accurately depict the current practices of design experts. This required identifying the variables considered during design, prioritizing and

The purpose of this study was to construct an instructional systems design model for chemistry teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level to accurately depict the current practices of design experts. This required identifying the variables considered during design, prioritizing and ordering these variables, and constructing a model. Experts were identified by multiple publications in the Journal of Chemical Education on undergraduate laboratories. Twelve of these individuals participated in three rounds of Delphi surveys. An initial literature review was used to construct the first survey, which established the variables of design. The second and third surveys were constructed based on the answers from the previous survey and literature review. The second survey determined the priority and order of the variables, and the third survey allowed the participating experts to evaluate the preliminary design model. The results were validated by interviewing three additional experts who had not participated in the surveys. The first round survey produced 47 variable themes identified by the experts as being important to chemistry laboratory design. Of these, 46 variable themes were determined to be important based on their responses to the second-round survey. Second-round survey results were used to determine the order in which participants consider the themes, allowing for construction of a preliminary design model. In the third round, participants found the model to be accurate, organized appropriately, easy to understand, and useful. Interviews supported these results. The final design model included five main phases with individual considerations or steps. These five phases were named planning, development, implementation, revision, and evaluation. The first four phases form a cyclic process, and they are supported by the continuous evaluation phase. The strengths of the model developed in this study include the participation of experts within the field, the ability of the model to start discussions regarding design, and the high level of agreement on the final model. This model could be refined and evaluated to determine its efficacy in assisting novice or expert designers in creating and improving experiments that support learning. The method used in this study could be used for model development in other fields.

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Date Created
2012

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External validation of an instructional design model for high fidelity simulation: model application in a hospital setting

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the design characteristics component of the Jeffries/National League for Nursing Framework for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Simulations when developing a simulation-based approach to teaching structured communication to new graduate

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the design characteristics component of the Jeffries/National League for Nursing Framework for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Simulations when developing a simulation-based approach to teaching structured communication to new graduate nurses. The setting for the study was a medium sized tertiary care hospital located in the southwestern United States. Participants in the study were an instructional designer (who also served as the researcher), two graduate nursing education specialists, one unit based educator, and 27 new graduate nurses and registered nurses who had been in practice for less than six months. Design and development research was employed to examine the processes used to design the simulation, implementation of the simulation by faculty, and course evaluation data from both students and faculty. Data collected from the designer, faculty and student participants were analyzed for evidence on how the design characteristics informed the design and implementation of the course, student achievement of course goals, as well as student and faculty evaluation of the course. These data were used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model in this context as well as suggestions for strengthening the model. Findings revealed that the model generally functioned well in this context. Particular strengths of the model were its emphasis on problem-solving and recommendations for attending to fidelity of clinical scenarios. Weaknesses of the model were inadequate guidance for designing student preparation, student support, and debriefing. Additionally, the model does not address the role of observers or others who are not assigned the role of primary nurse during simulations. Recommendations for strengthening the model include addressing these weaknesses by incorporating existing evidence in the instructional design of experiential learning and by scaffolding students during problem-solving. The results of the study also suggested interrelationships among the design characteristics that were not previously described; further exploration of this finding may strengthen the model. Faculty and instructional designers creating clinical simulations in this context would benefit from using the Jeffries/National League for Nursing Model, adding external resources to supplement in areas where the model does not currently provide adequate guidance.

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Date Created
2011

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Teachers' professional growth: the blending of technology, pedagogy and content

Description

ABSTRACT The integration of technology into content area teaching while taking into account state standards is a continuing challenge for secondary teachers. To address this challenge, six high school teachers participated in one-on-one tutoring sessions conducted by the researcher. The

ABSTRACT The integration of technology into content area teaching while taking into account state standards is a continuing challenge for secondary teachers. To address this challenge, six high school teachers participated in one-on-one tutoring sessions conducted by the researcher. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), which posits that teachers add technology into their practice by blending it with content and pedagogy, served as the theoretical framework and guided implementation of the project. During the one-on-one tutoring sessions, which occurred weekly in hour-long sessions for a five- to eight-week period, teachers selected the focus of the training sessions. To assess teacher perceptions of efficacy quantitative data were gathered prior to and following the intervention using an on-line survey tool. Although pre- to post-intervention scores on the survey increased, the difference was not significant. With respect to the qualitative data four themes emerged. First, there were specific processes and patterns that emerged within the sessions related to the TPACK framework. Teachers selected either technology or content to initiate sessions. Teachers did not begin sessions with high yield pedagogical strategies as a focus. Second, one-on-one tutoring fostered an initial sense of community, and as the project progressed, a community of practice emerged. Third, challenges emerged related to technology and high yield pedagogical strategies. At times technology did not work or teachers expressed there was too much to grasp and apply to their practice. Additionally, the appropriate applications of high yield instructional strategies also presented challenges to participants. Fourth, based on their participation in the project, teachers expressed an increased sense of efficacy with respect to conducting their work. The discussion was focused on how teachers created a community of practice to support their professional growth, which influenced efficacy for teaching as they became increasingly effective in blending technology, pedagogy and content.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Research and Development of a Blackboard Orientation Course for Face-to-Face Students Taking Online Courses at Washington State University-Everett

Description

Washington State University Everett could benefit from a Blackboard® online orientation course prior to their first credited online course. Research included results from student satisfaction surveys and focus groups. It was determined through both quantitative and qualitative data that students

Washington State University Everett could benefit from a Blackboard® online orientation course prior to their first credited online course. Research included results from student satisfaction surveys and focus groups. It was determined through both quantitative and qualitative data that students who opt into an online orientation course have the potential for increased satisfaction and success with online coursework throughout their degree-completion experience. Once this determination was made, a fully-functioning Blackboard® orientation course was designed and developed. The course has been tested by faculty and is ready for Fall 2017 deployment as a voluntary online orientation for any student already admitted to WSU Everett.

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Date Created
2017-03-20

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Implementing a K-12 train the trainer professional development model through the school improvement grant

Description

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the state. This is a study of the Train the Trainer component of an innovative K12 professional development model designed to meet the needs of the state's lowest performing schools that served some of the state's most marginalized students. Pursuing a Vygotzkian social constructivist framework, the model was developed and informed by its stakeholders, providing training that was collaborative, job-embedded, ongoing, and continuously adapted to meet the needs of the School Improvement Grant participants. Schools in the multi-case study were awarded the federal ARRA School Improvement Grant in 2010. Focus questions include: What influence does the Train the Trainer component have on classroom instruction specifically as it relates to formative assessment? and To what extent does the trainer support the implementation of the Train the Trainer professional development at the classroom level? The action research study took place from August 2011 to February 2012 and used a mixed-methods research design.

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Date Created
2012

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Mathematics in a second grade classroom: the effects of cognitively guided problem solving

Description

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a suburban Title I school with a primarily Hispanic, non-native English

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a suburban Title I school with a primarily Hispanic, non-native English speaking population, is designed to explore the effects of the progression through a set of problem solving solution strategies on the mathematics problem solving abilities of 2nd grade students. Students worked in class with partners to complete a Cognitively Guided Instruction-style (CGI) mathematics word problem using a dictated solution strategy five days a week for twelve weeks, three or four weeks for each of four solution strategies. The phases included acting out the problem using realia, representing the problem using standard mathematics manipulatives, modeling the problem using a schematic representation, and solving the problem using a number sentence. Data were collected using a five question problem solving pre- and post-assessment, video recorded observations, and Daily Answer Recording Slips or Mathematics Problem Solving Journals. Findings showed that this problem solving innovation was effective in increasing the problem solving abilities of all participants in this study, with an average increase of 63% in the number of pre-assessment to post-assessment questions answered correctly. Additionally, students increased the complexity of solutions used to solve problems and decreased the rate of guessing at answers to word problems. Further rounds of research looking into the direct effects of the MKO are suggested as next steps of research.

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Date Created
2013

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Effects of text, audio and learner control on text-sound association and cognitive load of EFL learners

Description

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and aural forms of target vocabulary words. The study also looked

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and aural forms of target vocabulary words. The study also looked at the effects of learner control over an audio sequence on the association of textual and aural forms of target words. Attitudes towards experimental treatments and reported level of cognitive load were also examined in the context of a computer-based multimedia instructional program. A total of 200 college students took part in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions in a 2 x 3 factorial design with level of learner control (learner-controlled vs. not-learner-controlled) and format of presentation of information (audio + no text vs. audio + full text vs. audio + keyword text) as factors. The subjects completed a pretest, a posttest, cognitive load questions, and an attitude questionnaire. The results revealed the following findings: (a) groups in the audio + keyword text conditions outperformed those in the audio + no text and audio + full text conditions on text-sound association, (b) within the audio + keyword text conditions, the learner-controlled group outperformed the not-learner-controlled group on text-sound association, (c) within the learner-controlled conditions, the audio + keyword group outperformed the audio + no text and audio + full text groups on text-sound association, (d) a redundancy effect was not found for any treatment condition, and (e) overall, participants had positive attitudes towards the treatments. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed within the frameworks of cognitive load theory and cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

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Date Created
2014