Matching Items (5)

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Adaptation of Bacterial Comet Assays to Detect Antimicrobial-mediated DNA Strand Breaks in Escherichia coli

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This study was conducted as part of an underlying initiative to elucidate the mechanism of action of natural antibacterial clay minerals for application as therapeutic agents for difficult-to-treat infections such

This study was conducted as part of an underlying initiative to elucidate the mechanism of action of natural antibacterial clay minerals for application as therapeutic agents for difficult-to-treat infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-derived skin lesions and Buruli ulcer. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether exposure to the leachate of an antibacterial clay mineral, designated as CB, produced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. A neutral comet assay for bacterial cells was adapted to assess DSB levels upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds. Challenges involved with the adaptation process included comet visualization and data collection. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions comprised of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to CB resulted in significantly longer comet lengths compared to negative control exposures, suggesting that CB killing activity involves the induction of DNA DSBs. The results of this investigation further characterize the antimicrobial mechanisms associated with a particular clay mineral mixture. The adapted comet assay protocol described herein functions as an effective tool to assess double-strand fragmentation resulting from exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds and to visually compare results from experimental and control reactions.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Eradication of multidrug-resistant bacteria using biomolecule-encapsulated two-dimensional materials

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The increasing pervasiveness of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) is a major global health issue that has been further exacerbated by the dearth of antibiotics developed over the past

The increasing pervasiveness of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) is a major global health issue that has been further exacerbated by the dearth of antibiotics developed over the past 40 years. Drug-resistant bacteria have led to significant morbidity and mortality, and ever-increasing antibiotic resistance threatens to reverse many of the medical advances enabled by antibiotics over the last 40 years. The traditional strategy for combating these superbugs involves the development of new antibiotics. Yet, only two new classes of antibiotics have been introduced to the clinic over the past two decades, and both failed to combat broad spectrum gram-negative bacteria. This situation demands alternative strategies to combat drug-resistant superbugs. Herein, these dissertation reports the development of potent antibacterials based on biomolecule-encapsulated two-dimensional inorganic materials, which combat multidrug-resistant bacteria using alternative mechanisms of strong physical interactions with bacterial cell membrane. These systems successfully eliminate all members of the ‘Superbugs’ set of pathogenic bacteria, which are known for developing antibiotic resistance, providing an alternative to the limited ‘one bug-one drug’ approach that is conventionally used. Furthermore, these systems demonstrate a multimodal antibacterial killing mechanism that induces outer membrane destabilization, unregulated ion movement across the membranes, induction of oxidative stress, and finally apoptotic-like cell death. In addition, a peptide-encapsulation of the two-dimensional material successfully eliminated biofilms and persisters at micromolar concentrations. Overall, these novel systems have great potential as next-generation antimicrobial agents for eradication of broad spectrum multidrug-resistant bacteria.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Synthesis and applications of nanostructured zeolites from geopolymer chemistry

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Nanostructured zeolites, in particular nanocrystalline zeolites, are of great interest due to their efficient use in conventional catalysis, separations, and emerging applications. Despite the recent advances, fewer than 20

Nanostructured zeolites, in particular nanocrystalline zeolites, are of great interest due to their efficient use in conventional catalysis, separations, and emerging applications. Despite the recent advances, fewer than 20 zeolite framework types have been synthesized in the form of nanocrystallites and their scalable synthesis has yet to be developed and understood. Geopolymers, claimed to be “amorphous cousins of zeolites”, are a class of ceramic-like aluminosilicate materials with prominent application in construction due to their unique chemical and mechanical properties. Despite the monolith form, geopolymers are fundamentally nanostructured materials and contain zeolite nanocrystallites.

Herein, a new cost-effective and scalable synthesis of various types of nanocrystalline zeolites based on geopolymer chemistry is presented. The study includes the synthesis of highly crystalline discrete nanorods of a CAN zeolite framework structure that had not been achieved hitherto, the exploration of the Na−Al−Si−H2O kinetic phase diagram of hydrogels that gives SOD, CAN and FAU nanocrystalline zeolites, and the discovery of a unique formation mechanism of highly crystalline nanostructured FAU zeolite with intermediate gel products that possess an unprecedented uniform distribution of elements. This study demonstrated the possibility of using high-concentration hydrogels for the synthesis of nanocrystalline zeolites of additional framework structures.

Moreover, a comprehensive study on nanostructured FAU zeolites ion-exchanged with Ag+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+ for antibacterial applications is presented, which comprises metal ion release kinetics, antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicity. For the first time, superior metal ion release performance was confirmed for the nanostructured zeolites compared to their micron-sized counterparts. The metal ion-exchanged FAU nanostructured zeolites were established as new effective antibacterial materials featuring their unique physiochemical, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Unearthing the antibacterial activity of a natural clay deposit

Description

The discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents is essential to address the rising health concern over antibiotic resistant bacteria. This research investigated the antibacterial activity of a natural clay

The discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents is essential to address the rising health concern over antibiotic resistant bacteria. This research investigated the antibacterial activity of a natural clay deposit near Crater Lake, Oregon, that is effective at killing antibiotic resistant human pathogens. The primary rock types in the deposit are andesitic pyroclastic materials, which have been hydrothermally altered into argillic clay zones. High-sulfidation (acidic) alteration produced clay zones with elevated pyrite (18%), illite-smectite (I-S) (70% illite), elemental sulfur, kaolinite and carbonates. Low-sulfidation alteration at neutral pH generated clay zones with lower pyrite concentrations pyrite (4-6%), the mixed-layered I-S clay rectorite (R1, I-S) and quartz.

Antibacterial susceptibility testing reveals that hydrated clays containing pyrite and I-S are effective at killing (100%) of the model pathogens tested (E. coli and S. epidermidis) when pH (< 4.2) and Eh (> 450 mV) promote pyrite oxidation and mineral dissolution, releasing > 1 mM concentrations of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Al3+. However, certain oxidized clay zones containing no pyrite still inhibited bacterial growth. These clays buffered solutions to low pH (< 4.7) and oxidizing Eh (> 400 mV) conditions, releasing lower amounts (< 1 mM) of Fe and Al. The presence of carbonate in the clays eliminated antibacterial activity due to increases in pH, which lower pyrite oxidation and mineral dissolution rates.

The antibacterial mechanism of these natural clays was explored using metal toxicity and genetic assays, along with advanced bioimaging techniques. Antibacterial clays provide a continuous reservoir of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ that synergistically attack pathogens while generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O¬2). Results show that dissolved Fe2+ and Al3+ are adsorbed to bacterial envelopes, causing protein misfolding and oxidation in the outer membrane. Only Fe2+ is taken up by the cells, generating oxidative stress that damages DNA and proteins. Excess Fe2+ oxidizes inside the cell and precipitates Fe3+-oxides, marking the sites of hydroxyl radical (•OH) generation. Recognition of this novel geochemical antibacterial process should inform designs of new mineral based antibacterial agents and could provide a new economic industry for such clays.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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In vitro and In vivo assessment of the mechanism of action and efficacy of antibacterial clays for the treatment of cutaneous infections

Description

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal of therapies to combat these pathogenic organisms. We have identified a clay mineral mixture (designated CB) that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, yet the antibacterial mechanism of action remains unknown. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of four different clay samples collected from the same source revealed that these natural clays had markedly different antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction analyses of these minerals revealed minor mineralogical differences across the samples; however, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate resulted in antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the in vitro antibacterial clay mixture leachates. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to CB-L. Supplementation of CB-L with ROS scavengers eliminated oxidative damage in E. coli, but did not rescue the cells from killing, indicating that in vitro killing is due to direct metal toxicity and not to indirect oxidative damage. Finally, we ion-exchanged non-antibacterial clays with Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn and established antibacterial activity in these samples. Treatment of MRSA skin infections with both natural and ion-exchanged clays significantly decreased the bacterial load after 7 days of treatment. We conclude that 1) in vitro clay-mediated killing is due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions and not to indirect oxidative damage and 2) that in vivo killing is due to the physical properties of the clays rather than metal ion toxicity.

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Date Created
  • 2014