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Examining the Role of Word Complexity in Consonant Correctness as Measured by Common Articulation Tests

Description

Children's speech and language development is measured by performance on standardized articulation tests. Test items on these assessments, however, vary in length and complexity. Word complexity was compared across five

Children's speech and language development is measured by performance on standardized articulation tests. Test items on these assessments, however, vary in length and complexity. Word complexity was compared across five articulation tests: the Assessment of Phonological Patterns-Revised (APP-R), the Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (BBTOP), the Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology (CAAP), the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA), and the Assessment of Children's Articulation and Phonology (ACAP). Four groups of word complexity were used, using the dimensions of monosyllabic vs. multisyllabic words, and words with consonant clusters vs. words without consonant clusters. The measure of phonological mean length of utterance (Ingram, 2001), was used to assess overall word complexity. It was found that the tests varied in number of test items and word complexity, with the BBTOP and the CAAP showing the most similarity to word complexity in spontaneous speech of young children. On the other hand, the APP-R used the most complex words and showed the least similarity. Additionally, case studies were analyzed for three of the tests to examine the effect of word complexity on consonant correctness, usedin the measures of Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC) and the Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP). Word complexity was found to affect consonant correctness, therefore affecting test performance.

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  • 2013-05

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The Effect of the Émigrés on Franco-British Cultural Relations

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This paper analyzes the British people’s attitudes towards the French people both before and after the French Revolution. It looks at how the French émigrés played a role in shaping

This paper analyzes the British people’s attitudes towards the French people both before and after the French Revolution. It looks at how the French émigrés played a role in shaping these attitudes. To analyze the opinions of the British people prior to the French Revolution travel diaries are used. These travel diaries identify the stereotypes of the French people given by the British. The French Revolution prompted the immigration of French people to England. This immigration led to a change in treatment towards the French people. Kirsty Carpenter was a pioneer in researching the role émigrés played in changing British attitudes towards the French. During the Revolution a variety of sources are used to examine what the British thought of the émigrés. Memories of Frances Burney and Comtesse du Boigne are used. In addition, articles and reports found in newspapers like The Observer. Also, editorial and political writings by Henry Dundas and Edmund Burke are used. In general, after analyzing these sources it is seen that British attitudes towards the French people differed with the introduction of French émigrés during the French Revolution. Prior to the French Revolution, many British people thought of the French as foolish, vain, and lazy. The French emigrants elicited a sympathetic response from the British people. The differing attitudes towards the French people can be explained by the dire circumstances of the emigrants, the violent nature of the Revolution, and the increased contact between the French and British people.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05