Matching Items (23)

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The Design of Wood Structures Against Natural Hazards

Description

This thesis contains the experimental methods, analysis and results used to test the energy dissipation and impact resistance characteristics of CarbonFlex, a lightweight composite that combines strong fiber technology with a unique polymer coating for use in wood residential structures. Comparisons are made between CarbonFlex and the traditional plywood model.

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2013-05

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The development and engineering application of a fiber reinforced hybrid matrix composite for structural retrofitting and damage mitigation

Description

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), in structural retrofitting have gained significant popularity. However, due

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), in structural retrofitting have gained significant popularity. However, due to their inherent brittleness and lack of energy dissipation, undesirable failure modes of the FRP-retrofitted systems, such as sudden laminate fracture and debonding, have been frequently observed. In this light, a Carbon-fiber reinforced Hybrid-polymeric Matrix Composite (or CHMC) was developed to provide a superior, yet affordable, solution for infrastructure damage mitigation and protection. The microstructural and micromechanical characteristics of the CHMC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation technique. The mechanical performance, such as damping, was identified using free and forced vibration tests. A simplified analytical model based on micromechanics was developed to predict the laminate stiffness using the modulus profile tested by the nanoindentation. The prediction results were verified by the flexural modulus calculated from the vibration tests. The feasibility of using CHMC to retrofit damaged structural systems was investigated via a series of structural component level tests. The effectiveness of using CHMC versus conventional carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/ epoxy) to retrofit notch damaged steel beams were tested. The comparison of the test results indicated the superior deformation capacity of the CHMC retrofitted beams. The full field strain distributions near the critical notch tip region were experimentally determined by the digital imaging correlation (DIC), and the results matched well with the finite element analysis (FEA) results. In the second series of tests, the application of CHMC was expanded to retrofit the full-scale fatigue-damaged concrete-encased steel (or SRC) girders. Similar to the notched steel beam tests, the CHMC retrofitted SRC girders exhibited substantially better post-peak load ductility than that of CF/ epoxy retrofitted girder. Lastly, a quasi-static push over test on the CHMC retrofitted reinforced concrete shear wall further highlighted the CHMC's capability of enhancing the deformation and energy dissipating potential of the damaged civil infrastructure systems. Analytical and numerical models were developed to assist the retrofitting design using the newly developed CHMC material.

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Date Created
2013

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Electric potential and field calculation of HVDC composite insulators by charge simulation method

Description

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC systems. Insulators are used to support and isolate the conductors

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC systems. Insulators are used to support and isolate the conductors mechanically and electrically. Composite insulators are gaining popularity for both AC and DC lines, for the reasons of light weight and good performance under contaminated conditions. This research illustrates the electric potential and field computation on HVDC composite insulators by using the charge simulation method. The electric field is calculated under both dry and wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the field distributions along the insulators whose voltage levels range from 500 kV to 1200 kV are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the HVDC insulator produces higher electric field, when compared to AC insulator. Under wet conditions, a 500 kV insulator is modeled with discrete water droplets on the surface. In this case, the field distribution is affected by surface resistivity and separations between droplets. The corona effects on insulators are analyzed for both dry and wet conditions. Corona discharge is created, when electric field strength exceeds the threshold value. Corona and grading rings are placed near the end-fittings of the insulators to reduce occurrence of corona. The dimensions of these rings, specifically their radius, tube thickness and projection from end fittings are optimized. This will help the utilities design proper corona and grading rings to reduce the corona phenomena.

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Date Created
2013

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Development of mehanochemically active polymers for early damage detection

Description

Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in

Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

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Date Created
2014

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Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

Description

The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems

The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

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Date Created
2011

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Micromechanics based multiscale modeling of the inelastic response and failure of complex architecture composites

Description

Advanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness, strength and energy absorption capabilities. However, the assurance of structural reliability is a critical issue because a damage event will compromise the integrity of composite structures

Advanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness, strength and energy absorption capabilities. However, the assurance of structural reliability is a critical issue because a damage event will compromise the integrity of composite structures and lead to ultimate failure. In this dissertation a novel homogenization based multiscale modeling framework using semi-analytical micromechanics is presented to simulate the response of textile composites. The novelty of this approach lies in the three scale homogenization/localization framework bridging between the constituent (micro), the fiber tow scale (meso), weave scale (macro), and the global response. The multiscale framework, named Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC), continuously bridges between the micro to the global scale as opposed to approaches that are top-down and bottom-up. This framework is fully generalized and capable of modeling several different weave and braids without reformulation. Particular emphasis in this dissertation is placed on modeling the nonlinearity and failure of both polymer matrix and ceramic matrix composites.

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Date Created
2011

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Damage detection in blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panels using lamb wave mode conversions

Description

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such as delamination or matrix cracks, can significantly compromise the performance

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such as delamination or matrix cracks, can significantly compromise the performance of these materials and result in premature failure. Structural components are often manually inspected to detect the presence of damage. This technique, known as schedule based maintenance, however, is expensive, time-consuming, and often limited to easily accessible structural elements. Therefore, there is an increased demand for robust and efficient Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques that can be used for Condition Based Monitoring, which is the method in which structural components are inspected based upon damage metrics as opposed to flight hours. SHM relies on in situ frameworks for detecting early signs of damage in exposed and unexposed structural elements, offering not only reduced number of schedule based inspections, but also providing better useful life estimates. SHM frameworks require the development of different sensing technologies, algorithms, and procedures to detect, localize, quantify, characterize, as well as assess overall damage in aerospace structures so that strong estimations in the remaining useful life can be determined. The use of piezoelectric transducers along with guided Lamb waves is a method that has received considerable attention due to the weight, cost, and function of the systems based on these elements. The research in this thesis investigates the ability of Lamb waves to detect damage in feature dense anisotropic composite panels. Most current research negates the effects of experimental variability by performing tests on structurally simple isotropic plates that are used as a baseline and damaged specimen. However, in actual applications, variability cannot be negated, and therefore there is a need to research the effects of complex sample geometries, environmental operating conditions, and the effects of variability in material properties. This research is based on experiments conducted on a single blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panel that localizes delamination damage caused by impact. The overall goal was to utilize a correlative approach that used only the damage feature produced by the delamination as the damage index. This approach was adopted because it offered a simplistic way to determine the existence and location of damage without having to conduct a more complex wave propagation analysis or having to take into account the geometric complexities of the test specimen. Results showed that even in a complex structure, if the damage feature can be extracted and measured, then an appropriate damage index can be associated to it and the location of the damage can be inferred using a dense sensor array. The second experiment presented in this research studies the effects of temperature on damage detection when using one test specimen for a benchmark data set and another for damage data collection. This expands the previous experiment into exploring not only the effects of variable temperature, but also the effects of high experimental variability. Results from this work show that the damage feature in the data is not only extractable at higher temperatures, but that the data from one panel at one temperature can be directly compared to another panel at another temperature for baseline comparison due to linearity of the collected data.

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Date Created
2012

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Thermal degradation in composite insulation due to corona discharges

Description

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and affect the hydrophobicity of the insulator. A study has been

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and affect the hydrophobicity of the insulator. A study has been undertaken to quantify and evaluate the thermal degradation that composite insulation is subjected to from corona discharges. This has been conducted primarily at the power frequency (60 Hz) and at the low frequency range (37 kHz). Point to plane corona discharge experiments have been performed in the laboratory at both the frequencies and varying levels of thermal degradation has been observed. The amplitude and the frequency of current spikes have been recorded at different voltage levels. A temperature model based on the amplitude and the frequency of current data has been formulated to calculate the maximum temperature attained due to these discharges. Visual thermal degradation has been found to set in at a low frequency range while there is no visual degradation observed at power frequency even when exposed to discharges for relatively much longer periods of time. However, microscopic experiments have been conducted which revealed degradation on the surface at 60 Hz. It has also been found that temperatures in excess of 300 Celsius have been obtained at 37 kHz. This corroborates the thermo gravimetric analysis data that proves thermal degradation in silicone rubber samples at temperatures greater than 300 Celsius. Using the above model, the maximum temperature rise can be evaluated due to discharges occurring on high voltage insulation. This model has also been used to calculate the temperature rise on medium voltage distribution equipment such as composite bushings and stand-off plugs. The samples were subjected to standard partial discharge tests and the corresponding discharge magnitudes have been recorded. The samples passed the tests and the corresponding temperatures plotted have been found to be within thermal limits of the respective insulation used on the samples. The experimental results concur with the theoretical model. A knowledge of the maximum temperatures attained due to these discharges can help in design of insulation with better thermal properties.

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Date Created
2010

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Performance analysis of composite insulators up to 1200 kV ac using electric field calculations

Description

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac.

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac. A part of the calculations was made using the 3D software package, COULOMB 8.0, based on the concept of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The electric field was calculated under dry and wet conditions. Compo-site insulators experience more electrical stress when compared to porcelain and are also more prone to damage caused by corona activity. The work presented here investigates the effect of corona rings of specific dimensions and bundled conductors on the electric field along composite insulators. Inappropriate placement or dimensions of corona rings could enhance the electric field instead of mitigating it. Corona ring optimization for a 1000 kV composite insulator was per-formed by changing parameters of the ring, such as the diameter of the ring, thickness of the ring tube and the projection of the ring from the high voltage energized end fitting. Grading rings were designed for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) systems that use two units of composite insulators in pa-rallel. The insulation distance, which bears 50% of the total applied voltage, is raised by 61% with the grading ring installed, when compared to the distance without the grading ring. In other words, the electric field and voltage distribution was found to be more linear with the application of grad-ing rings. The second part of this project was carried out using the EPRI designed software EPIC. This is based on the concept of Charge Simulation method (CSM). Comparisons were made be-tween electric field magnitude along composite insulators used for suspension and dead end configuration for system voltages ranging from 138 kV to 500 kV. It was found that the dead end composite insulators experience significantly higher electrical stress when compared to their suspension counterpart. It was also concluded that this difference gets more prominent as the system voltage increases. A comparison made between electric field distribution along composite insulators used in single and double dead end structures suggested that the electric stress experienced by the single dead end composite insulators is relatively higher when compared to double dead end composite insulators.

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Date Created
2010

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Using virtual testing for characterization of composite materials

Description

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

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Date Created
2015