Matching Items (22)

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The Design of Wood Structures Against Natural Hazards

Description

This thesis contains the experimental methods, analysis and results used to test the energy dissipation and impact resistance characteristics of CarbonFlex, a lightweight composite that combines strong fiber technology with

This thesis contains the experimental methods, analysis and results used to test the energy dissipation and impact resistance characteristics of CarbonFlex, a lightweight composite that combines strong fiber technology with a unique polymer coating for use in wood residential structures. Comparisons are made between CarbonFlex and the traditional plywood model.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Using virtual testing for characterization of composite materials

Description

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The development and engineering application of a fiber reinforced hybrid matrix composite for structural retrofitting and damage mitigation

Description

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), in structural retrofitting have gained significant popularity. However, due to their inherent brittleness and lack of energy dissipation, undesirable failure modes of the FRP-retrofitted systems, such as sudden laminate fracture and debonding, have been frequently observed. In this light, a Carbon-fiber reinforced Hybrid-polymeric Matrix Composite (or CHMC) was developed to provide a superior, yet affordable, solution for infrastructure damage mitigation and protection. The microstructural and micromechanical characteristics of the CHMC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation technique. The mechanical performance, such as damping, was identified using free and forced vibration tests. A simplified analytical model based on micromechanics was developed to predict the laminate stiffness using the modulus profile tested by the nanoindentation. The prediction results were verified by the flexural modulus calculated from the vibration tests. The feasibility of using CHMC to retrofit damaged structural systems was investigated via a series of structural component level tests. The effectiveness of using CHMC versus conventional carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/ epoxy) to retrofit notch damaged steel beams were tested. The comparison of the test results indicated the superior deformation capacity of the CHMC retrofitted beams. The full field strain distributions near the critical notch tip region were experimentally determined by the digital imaging correlation (DIC), and the results matched well with the finite element analysis (FEA) results. In the second series of tests, the application of CHMC was expanded to retrofit the full-scale fatigue-damaged concrete-encased steel (or SRC) girders. Similar to the notched steel beam tests, the CHMC retrofitted SRC girders exhibited substantially better post-peak load ductility than that of CF/ epoxy retrofitted girder. Lastly, a quasi-static push over test on the CHMC retrofitted reinforced concrete shear wall further highlighted the CHMC's capability of enhancing the deformation and energy dissipating potential of the damaged civil infrastructure systems. Analytical and numerical models were developed to assist the retrofitting design using the newly developed CHMC material.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Efficient extended finite element algorithms for strongly and weakly discontinuous entities with complex internal geometries

Description

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials with complex internal geometries. A key contribution of this work is the creation of novel methods designed to automate the incorporation of high-resolution data, e.g. from X-ray tomography, that can be used to better interpret the enormous volume of data generated in modern in-situ experimental testing. Thus new algorithms were developed for automating analysis of complex microstructures characterized by segmented tomographic images.

A centrality-based geometry segmentation algorithm was developed to accurately identify discrete inclusions and particles in composite materials where limitations in imaging resolution leads to spurious connections between particles in close contact.To allow for this algorithm to successfully segment geometry independently of particle size and shape, a relative centrality metric was defined to allow for a threshold centrality criterion for removal of voxels that spuriously connect distinct geometries.

To automate incorporation of microstructural information from high-resolution images, two methods were developed that initialize signed distance fields on adaptively-refined finite element meshes. The first method utilizes a level set evolution equation that is directly solved on the finite element mesh through Galerkins method. The evolution equation is formulated to produce a signed distance field that matches geometry defined by a set of voxels segmented from tomographic images. The method achieves optimal convergence for the order of elements used. In a second approach, the fast marching method is employed to initialize a distance field on a uniform grid which is then projected by least squares onto a finite element mesh. This latter approach is shown to be superior in speed and accuracy.

Lastly, extended finite element method simulations are performed for the analysis of particle fracture in metal matrix composites with realistic particle geometries initialized from X-ray tomographic data. In the simulations, particles fracture probabilistically through a Weibull strength distribution. The model is verified through comparisons with the experimentally-measured stress-strain response of the material as well as analysis of the fracture. Further, simulations are then performed to analyze the effect of mesh sensitivity, the effect of fracture of particles on their neighbors, and the role of a particles shape on its fracture probability.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Experimental Characterization and Finite Element Modeling of Composites to Support a Generalized Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Damage Material Model for Impact Analysis

Description

An orthotropic elasto-plastic damage material model (OEPDMM) suitable for impact simulations has been developed through a joint research project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics

An orthotropic elasto-plastic damage material model (OEPDMM) suitable for impact simulations has been developed through a joint research project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of the model includes derivation of the theoretical details, implementation of the theory into LS-DYNA®, a commercially available nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, as material model MAT 213, and verification and validation of the model. The material model is comprised of three major components: deformation, damage, and failure. The deformation sub-model is used to capture both linear and nonlinear deformations through a classical plasticity formulation. The damage sub-model is used to account for the reduction of elastic stiffness of the material as the degree of plastic strain is increased. Finally, the failure sub-model is used to predict the onset of loss of load carrying capacity in the material. OEPDMM is driven completely by tabulated experimental data obtained through physically meaningful material characterization tests, through high fidelity virtual tests, or both. The tabulated data includes stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates to drive the deformation sub-model, damage parameter-total strain curves to drive the damage sub-model, and the failure sub-model can be driven by the data required for different failure theories implemented in the computer code. The work presented herein focuses on the experiments used to obtain the data necessary to drive as well as validate the material model, development and implementation of the damage model, verification of the deformation and damage models through single element (SE) and multi-element (ME) finite element simulations, development and implementation of experimental procedure for modeling delamination, and finally validation of the material model through low speed impact simulations and high speed impact simulations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Improvements in numerical modeling methodology of dry woven fabrics for aircraft engine containment systems

Description

Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The

Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The development of a predictive model for fan blade containment would provide great benefit to engine manufactures in shortened development cycle time, less risk in certification and fewer dollars lost to redesign/recertification cycles. A mechanistic user-defined material model subroutine has been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) that captures the behavioral response of these fabrics, namely Kevlar® 49, under ballistic loading. Previously developed finite element models used to validate the consistency of this material model neglected the effects of the physical constraints imposed on the test setup during ballistic testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC). Part of this research was to explore the effects of these boundary conditions on the results of the numerical simulations. These effects were found to be negligible in most instances. Other material models for woven fabrics are available in the LS-DYNA finite element code. One of these models, MAT234: MAT_VISCOELASTIC_LOOSE_FABRIC (Ivanov & Tabiei, 2004) was studied and implemented in the finite element simulations of ballistic testing associated with the FAA ASU research. The results from these models are compared to results obtained from the ASU UMAT as part of this research. The results indicate an underestimation in the energy absorption characteristics of the Kevlar 49 fabric containment systems. More investigation needs to be performed in the implementation of MAT234 for Kevlar 49 fabric. Static penetrator testing of Kevlar® 49 fabric was performed at ASU in conjunction with this research. These experiments are designed to mimic the type of loading experienced during fan blade out events. The resulting experimental strains were measured using a non-contact optical strain measurement system (ARAMIS).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Probabilistic finite element analysis and design optimization for structural designs

Description

This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations

This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and implementation of probabilistic analysis in engineering designs through Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). First, the emphasis is on experimental data analysis focusing on probabilistic distribution models which characterize the randomness associated with the experimental data. The material properties of Kevlar® 49 are modeled using experimental data analysis and implemented along with an existing spiral modeling scheme (SMS) and user defined constitutive model (UMAT) for fabric based engine containment simulations in LS-DYNA. MCS of the model are performed to observe the failure pattern and exit velocities of the models. Then the solutions are compared with NASA experimental tests and deterministic results. MCS with probabilistic material data give a good prospective on results rather than a single deterministic simulation results. The next part of research is to implement the probabilistic material properties in engineering designs. The main aim of structural design is to obtain optimal solutions. In any case, in a deterministic optimization problem even though the structures are cost effective, it becomes highly unreliable if the uncertainty that may be associated with the system (material properties, loading etc.) is not represented or considered in the solution process. Reliable and optimal solution can be obtained by performing reliability optimization along with the deterministic optimization, which is RBDO. In RBDO problem formulation, in addition to structural performance constraints, reliability constraints are also considered. This part of research starts with introduction to reliability analysis such as first order reliability analysis, second order reliability analysis followed by simulation technique that are performed to obtain probability of failure and reliability of structures. Next, decoupled RBDO procedure is proposed with a new reliability analysis formulation with sensitivity analysis, which is performed to remove the highly reliable constraints in the RBDO, thereby reducing the computational time and function evaluations. Followed by implementation of the reliability analysis concepts and RBDO in finite element 2D truss problems and a planar beam problem are presented and discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Performance analysis of composite insulators up to 1200 kV ac using electric field calculations

Description

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac. A part of the calculations was made using the 3D software package, COULOMB 8.0, based on the concept of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The electric field was calculated under dry and wet conditions. Compo-site insulators experience more electrical stress when compared to porcelain and are also more prone to damage caused by corona activity. The work presented here investigates the effect of corona rings of specific dimensions and bundled conductors on the electric field along composite insulators. Inappropriate placement or dimensions of corona rings could enhance the electric field instead of mitigating it. Corona ring optimization for a 1000 kV composite insulator was per-formed by changing parameters of the ring, such as the diameter of the ring, thickness of the ring tube and the projection of the ring from the high voltage energized end fitting. Grading rings were designed for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) systems that use two units of composite insulators in pa-rallel. The insulation distance, which bears 50% of the total applied voltage, is raised by 61% with the grading ring installed, when compared to the distance without the grading ring. In other words, the electric field and voltage distribution was found to be more linear with the application of grad-ing rings. The second part of this project was carried out using the EPRI designed software EPIC. This is based on the concept of Charge Simulation method (CSM). Comparisons were made be-tween electric field magnitude along composite insulators used for suspension and dead end configuration for system voltages ranging from 138 kV to 500 kV. It was found that the dead end composite insulators experience significantly higher electrical stress when compared to their suspension counterpart. It was also concluded that this difference gets more prominent as the system voltage increases. A comparison made between electric field distribution along composite insulators used in single and double dead end structures suggested that the electric stress experienced by the single dead end composite insulators is relatively higher when compared to double dead end composite insulators.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Development of environmentally responsive multifunctional microgel particles: synthesis, characterization and applications

Description

Environmentally responsive microgels have drawn significant attention due to their intrinsic ability to change volume in response to various external stimuli such as pH, temperature, osmotic pressure, or electric and

Environmentally responsive microgels have drawn significant attention due to their intrinsic ability to change volume in response to various external stimuli such as pH, temperature, osmotic pressure, or electric and magnetic fields. The extent of particle swelling is controlled by the nature of the polymer-solvent interaction. This thesis focuses on design and synthesis of environmentally responsive microgels and their composites, and encompasses methods of utilizing microgel systems in applications as vehicles for the adsorption, retention, and targeted delivery of chemical species. Furthermore, self-assembled microgel particles at ionic liquid (IL)-water interfaces demonstrate responsive colloidal lattice morphology. The thesis first reports on the fundamental aspects of synthesis, functionalization, and characteristic properties of multifunctional environmentally responsive microgels derived from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and other functional co-monomers. In particular, the uptake and release of active chemical species such as rheology modifiers into and from these ionic microgels is demonstrated. Moreover, a facile tunable method for the formation of organic-inorganic composites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles adsorbed and embedded within ionic microgel particles is explored. Additionally, the development of zwitterionic microgels (ZI-MG) is presented. These aqueous ZI-MG dispersions exhibit reversible parabolic swelling as a function of pH and display a minimum hydrodynamic diameter at a tunable isoelectric point (IEP). This study also elucidates the controlled uptake and release of surfactants from these particle systems. The extent of surfactant loading and the ensuing relative swelling/deswelling behaviors within the polymer networks are explained in terms of their binding interactions. The latter part of this thesis highlights the versatility of fluorescently labeled microgel particles as stabilizers for IL-water droplets. When the prepared particles form monolayers and equilibrate at the liquid-liquid interface, the colloidal lattice organization may re-order itself depending on the surface charge of these particles. Finally, it is shown that the spontaneously formed and densely packed layers of microgel particles can be employed for extraction applications, as the interface remains permeable to small active species.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Mechanical behavior of Al-SiC nanolaminate composites using micro-scale testing methods

Description

Nanolaminate composite materials consist of alternating layers of materials at the nanoscale (≤100 nm). Due to the nanometer scale thickness of their layers, these materials display unique and tailorable properties.

Nanolaminate composite materials consist of alternating layers of materials at the nanoscale (≤100 nm). Due to the nanometer scale thickness of their layers, these materials display unique and tailorable properties. This enables us to alter both mechanical attributes such as strength and wear properties, as well as functional characteristics such as biocompatibility, optical, and electronic properties. This dissertation focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of the Al-SiC system. From a practical perspective, these materials exhibit a combination of high toughness and strength which is attractive for many applications. Scientifically, these materials are interesting due to the large elastic modulus mismatch between the layers. This, paired with the small layer thickness, allows a unique opportunity for scientists to study the plastic deformation of metals under extreme amounts of constraint.

Previous studies are limited in scope and a more diverse range of mechanical characterization is required to understand both the advantages and limitations of these materials. One of the major challenges with testing these materials is that they are only able to be made in thicknesses on the order of micrometers so the testing methods are limited to small volume techniques. This work makes use of both microscale testing techniques from the literature as well as novel methodologies. Using these techniques we are able to gain insight into aspects of the material’s mechanical behavior such as the effects of layer orientation, flaw dependent fracture, tension-compression asymmetry, fracture toughness as a function of layer thickness, and shear behavior as a function of layer thickness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016