Matching Items (9)

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Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement: The Mind-Body Connection

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Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a healthier and more academically successful youth, the relationship between the two warrants investigation. Specifically, the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance (i.e. grades) in 4th grade students was assessed. A cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children (M=9.39 years) by means of the FITNESSGRAM assessment tool. Third-quarter grades were used to measure academic performance. Relationships between the variables were determined through bivariate plots, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, independent t-tests, and a three-step regression analysis. The results show a significant relationship between students' aerobic fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest incremental validity between aerobic fitness and academic performance, thus implying predictive value associated with increased physical fitness and academic achievement.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Is the six minute walk test effective and reliable for determining the fitness of young adults with Down syndrome?

Description

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down syndrome (DS). This holds importance in today's health industry because this particular target group is at high risk for several cardiovascular, cognitive and clinical factors that contribute to their well-being and longevity. As well, the findings of this research could potentially contribute to the low volume of research that currently exists regarding fitness and the DS population and provide pertinent knowledge towards intervention programs. Fourteen participants with DS performed one 6MWT at a self-selected rate during an exercise intervention study to assess physical fitness. The results showed that walk distance increased with decreased BMI and walk distance increased with increased walking speed and increased leisure activity. These findings are clear indicators of physical fitness relating to healthy physical behavior. All results were consistent with past research in specific at-risk health related populations. This data suggests that this physical test is an adequate indicator of fitness levels in populations with DS, which may additionally provide explicit avenues for intervention and treatment to improve health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Is daily activity and exercise related to physical fitness, obesity, and mental health in adolescents with Down syndrome?

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The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with

The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help individuals understand the importance of physical activity in this population. The BMI, waist circumference, height, weight, body fat percentage, and non-exercise estimation of aerobic capacity along with the temporary state of emotion toward physical activity of thirty participants with DS were measured. The results of our study show that individuals with DS who are more physically fit have less body fat and a lower BMI. They also took part in more leisure-time activity and expressed more effort during physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Case study: Weight Loss Intervention in a Young Adult with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from physical, mental, emotional, and health-related side effects. MH and his mother requested help from Dr. Shannon Ringenbach, and resided in Arizona for four months during the process of developing and implementing a program of diet and exercise for him. We created a plan to maximize weight loss in this short period of time. Overall, MH reduced his weight from 276 lbs. to 217 lbs. in four months, his lowest weight being 201 lbs. after he and his mother returned home to Oregon. This is a 75 lb. weight loss and body mass index (BMI) reduction of 13.7 kg/m2. Although to reach a healthy body weight MH would still need to continue his weight loss, this is a significant amount of weight, which is especially difficult for people with Down syndrome to lose. In this case study it was crucial to take into consideration the other aspects that affect weight gain and loss, such as motivation, family life, diet, and lifestyle.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Monitors-based measurement of sedentary behaviors and light physical activity in adults

Description

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce sedentary behaviors. This dissertation included three projects that examined measurement properties of wearable monitors used to measure sedentary behaviors. Project one examined the validity of three monitors: the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL™, and SenseWear 2. None of the monitors were equivalent with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake to estimate the energy cost of sedentary and light-intensity activities. The ActivPAL™ had the best accuracy as compared with the other monitors. In project two, the accuracy of ActiGraph GT3X+and GENEActiv cut-points used to assess sedentary behavior were compared with direct observation during free-living conditions. New vector magnitude cut-points also were developed to classify time spent in sedentary- and stationary behaviors during free-living conditions. The cut-points tested had modest overall accuracy to classify sedentary time as compared to direct observation. New ActiGraph 1-minute vector cut-points increased overall accuracy for classifying sedentary time. Project 3 examined the accuracy of the sedentary sphere by testing various arm elevation- and movement-count configurations using GENEActiv and ActiGraph GT3X+ data obtained during free-living conditions. None of the configurations were equivalent to the criterion measure of direct observation. The best configuration of the GENEActiv was: worn on the dominant wrist at 15 degrees below the horizontal plane with a cut-point <489 for each 15-second interval. The best configuration for the ActiGraph was: worn on the non-dominant wrist at 5° below the horizontal plane with a cut-point of <489 counts for each 15-second interval. Collectively, these findings indicate that the wearable monitors and methods examined in this study are limited in their ability to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to further understand the scope and limitations of wearable monitors and methods used to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Maintaining hózhó: perceptions of physical activity, physical education and healthy living among Navajo high school students

Description

ABSTRACT

Native American populations have higher obesity and diabetes rates overall in the U.S. Percentages of obesity among Native American children were 11-25% higher than the national average. Among Navajo, cultural

ABSTRACT

Native American populations have higher obesity and diabetes rates overall in the U.S. Percentages of obesity among Native American children were 11-25% higher than the national average. Among Navajo, cultural lifestyles changes have led to less physical activity and obesity problems with youth more disassociated from traditional Navajo living, culture, beliefs, language and religion. They were at highest risk for Type II diabetes among ethnic groups due to less physically activity, increased weight gain and obesity.

This study had dual purposes: Part one of this study was to examined the perceptions of physical activity, physical education and living healthy lifestyles of Navajo adolescents, physical educators, a Navajo culture teacher, a Diné studies teacher and a community member. Part two of this study examined the physical activity patterns of Navajo adolescent students. To gain their perspectives, eight Navajo students (9-12 grades), two physical educators, two classroom teachers and one community member were recruited and interviewed individually for 60-minutes. Secondly, pedometers were used to assess the students’ physical activity levels during the school day and 24-hour increments.

Results of the part one study indicated important aspects of physical activity by Navajo adolescents, physical education teachers, classroom teachers and a community member were cultural identity, family involvement, and structure of family/extended family. Navajo respondents participated in traditional form of running in the morning, a practice performed by parents and/or extended family. Physical activity was described as active involvement of the body, movement, physical fitness, and sport related interests. Stakeholders described physical activity and healthy living as culturally driven beliefs and learning based on Navajo way of life.

Findings of part two study indicated that boys were significantly more physically active on weekday than girls t(32)=2.04, p=<.05. Weekday step counts for boys indicated (M=11,078, SD= 4,399) and for girls (M=7,567, SD=5,613). Girls were significantly more active on weekend t(27)=2.30,p=.03. Weekend step counts indicated boys and girls accumulated (M=6493, SD=5650) and (M=7589, SD=5614) steps. Physical education step counts showed minimal differences between boys (M=2203, SD=918) and girls (M=1939, SD=889) step counts. Overall results indicate that Navajo adolescents did not meet daily physical activity recommendations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Plasma vitamin C supplementation and physical activity in young men

Description

Vitamin C is a micronutrient with many important physiological roles. It can function as a reducing agent, a free radical scavenger, and an enzyme cofactor. Much research has examined the

Vitamin C is a micronutrient with many important physiological roles. It can function as a reducing agent, a free radical scavenger, and an enzyme cofactor. Much research has examined the potential of vitamin C supplements to enhance exercise capacity in trained athletes; however, little is known regarding the effects of vitamin C supplements on the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in the general population. This area deserves attention since 1/3 of Americans have below adequate vitamin C status, and since aversion to exercise, fatigue, and altered mood states are the earliest signs of poor vitamin C status. This study analyzed the effect of supplementing 500 mg twice daily of vitamin C on self-reported leisure-time activity levels and mood states in young men. Twenty-nine healthy, young men, aged 18-35 years, were stratified by age, BMI, smoking status, and plasma vitamin C concentrations and assigned to either a control (CON) or experimental group (VTC) for the 8-week randomized, double-blinded, parallel arm trial. Subjects were instructed to keep track of their leisure-time physical activity by filling out the validated Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire weekly for the entire study. In addition, subjects took the self-administered Profile of Mood States (POMS) at baseline, week 4, and week 8 to observe mood states. Plasma vitamin C concentrations were analyzed at the initial screening, week 4, and week 8 of the study. Plasma vitamin C concentrations significantly differed by group at week 4 and week 8. Furthermore, vitamin C supplementation significantly increased self-reported mild, moderate, and strenuous activity levels during the 8-week trial. Overall, total physical activity scores increased nearly 50% in the VTC group as compared to 18% in the CON group (p=0.001). However, mood states were not significantly impacted by vitamin C supplementation during the trial. This study provides the first experimental evidence that supplementing 500 mg of vitamin C twice daily can be effective in increasing leisure-time physical activity in healthy young men. This study, however, was unable to link improvements in physical activity rates to improved mood states. Since sedentary behaviors have been implicated in the rise of obesity in the U.S., further research should be conducted to substantiate the finding that vitamin C supplementation increases physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Physical fitness in Army National Guard soldiers and its relationship on utilization of medical resources during combat

Description

The effects of a long-term combat deployment on a soldier's physical fitness are not well understood. In active duty soldiers, combat deployment reduced physical fitness compared to pre-deployment status, but

The effects of a long-term combat deployment on a soldier's physical fitness are not well understood. In active duty soldiers, combat deployment reduced physical fitness compared to pre-deployment status, but no similar research has been performed on Army National Guard soldiers. This study is the first to identify physical fitness changes in Arizona National Guard (AZNG) soldiers following deployment to a combat zone and to assess the relationships between physical fitness and non-combat injuries and illness (NCII). Sixty soldiers from the Arizona National Guard (AZNG) completed a battery of physical fitness tests prior to deployment and within 1-7 days of returning from a 12-month deployment to Iraq. Pre and post-deployment measures assessed body composition (Bod Pod), muscular strength (1RM bench press, back-squat), muscular endurance (push-up, sit-up), power (Wingate cycle test), cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill run to VO2 peak), and flexibility (sit-and-reach, trunk extension, shoulder elevation). Post deployment, medical records were reviewed by a blinded researcher and inventoried for NCII that occurred during deployment. Data were analyzed for changes between pre and post-deployment physical fitness. Relationships between fitness and utilization of medical resources for NCII were then determined. Significant declines were noted in mean cardiorespiratory fitness (-10.8%) and trunk flexibility (-6.7%). Significant improvements were seen in mean level of fat mass (-11.1%), relative strength (bench press, 10.2%, back-squat 14.2%) and muscular endurance (push-up 16.4%, sit-up 11.0%). Significant (p < 0.05) negative correlations were detected between percentage change in fat mass and gastrointestinal visits (r = -0.37); sit-and-reach and lower extremity visits (r= -0.33); shoulder elevation and upper extremity visits (r= -0.36); and cardiorespiratory fitness and back visits (r= -0.31); as well as behavioral health visits (r= -0.28). Cardiorespiratory fitness changes were grouped into tertiles. Those who lost the greatest fitness had significantly greater number of NCII visits (8.0 v 3.1 v 2.6, p = .03). These data indicate a relationship between the decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and an overall increase in utilization of medical resources. The results may provide incentive to military leaders to ensure that soldiers maintain their cardiorespiratory fitness throughout the extent of their deployment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Application of methods in physical activity measurement

Description

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and methodology for a variety of physical activity assessment methods. Project one identified validity evidence for the new MyWellness Key accelerometer in sixteen adults. The MyWellness Key demonstrated acceptable validity evidence when compared to a criterion accelerometer during graded treadmill walking and in free-living settings. This supports the use of the MyWellness Key accelerometer to measure physical activity. Project two evaluated validity (study 1) and test-retest reliability evidence (study 2) of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a two part study. The GPAQ was compared to direct and indirect criterion measures including object and subjective physical activity instruments. These data provided preliminary validity and reliability evidence for the GPAQ that support its use to assess physical activity. Project three investigated the optimal h.d-1 of accelerometer wear time needed to assess daily physical activity. Using a semi-simulation approach, data from 124 participants were used to compare 10-13 h.d-1 to the criterion 14 h.d-1. This study suggested that a minimum accelerometer wear time of 13 h.d-1 is needed to provide a valid measure of daily physical activity. Project four evaluated validity and reliability evidence of a novel method (Movement and Activity in Physical Space [MAPS] score) that combines accelerometer and GPS data to assess person-environment interactions. Seventy-five healthy adults wore an accelerometer and GPS receiver for three days to provide MAPS scores. This study provided evidence for use of a MAPS score for future research and clinical use. Project five used accelerometer data from 1,000 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. A semi-simulation approach was used to assess the effect of accelerometer wear time (10-14 h.d-1) on physical activity data. These data showed wearing for 12 h.d-1 or less may underestimate time spent in various intensities of physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011