Matching Items (4)

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Grains that Compensate for Nutrient Deficiencies in a Gluten-Free Diet

Description

The Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) is increasing in prevalence due to increased diagnoses of Celiac Disease, however deficiencies have been found to persist in individuals with Celiac Disease who have been on the diet for a prolonged period of time. These

The Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) is increasing in prevalence due to increased diagnoses of Celiac Disease, however deficiencies have been found to persist in individuals with Celiac Disease who have been on the diet for a prolonged period of time. These deficiencies are not the result of continued GI inability to absorb the nutrients (as evidenced by biopsy) and, therefore, are inherent to the diet itself. Comparing these deficiencies to nutrient-dense gluten-free grains reveals those that specifically meet the deficiencies evident in the GFD. These include low-fat soy flour, buckwheat, and sorghum as the most nutritionally adequate for the gluten-free individual.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Will the daily consumption of commercially available high-protein pasta and cereal, in comparison to traditional gluten-free pasta and cereal, favorably impact weight loss and satiety in adults adhering to calorie restricted diets?

Description

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research examined the effectiveness of a weight loss diet incorporating high protein pasta and breakfast cereal products as compared to a weight loss diet using conventional versions of gluten-free pasta and breakfast cereal.

Design: In a 6-week parallel-arm food trial (representing the first phase of a 12-week cross-over trial), 26 overweight and obese (Mean BMI 43.1 ± 12.4 kg/m²) participants, free of related comorbidities, were randomly assigned to the Zone diet (~29% energy intake from protein) or a control diet (~9% energy from protein). Participants were included in the trial if they satisfied the criteria for elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (top half of the TG/HDL ratios of all who were tested). Participants were instructed to eat prepared meals (total of 7 cereal packets and 14 pasta meals weekly) that included patented food technologies for the Zone diet and commercially available gluten-free rice pasta and a conventional name brand boxed cereal for the control diet. Body composition was measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale at weeks 1, and 6. Food records and diet adherence were recorded daily by the participants.

Results: Both the Zone and control diets resulted in significant weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.1 kg vs. -2.7 ± 2.6 kg respectively) over time (p = 0.03) but not between groups (p = 0.96). Although not statistically significant, the Zone diet appears to have influenced more weight loss at trial weeks 3, 4, and 5 (p = 0.46) than the control diet. The change in FFM was significant (p = 0.02) between the Zone and control groups (1.4 ± 3.6 kg vs. -0.6 ± 1.5 kg respectively) at week-6. Study adherence did not differ significantly between diet groups (p = 0.53).

Conclusions: Energy-restricted diets are effective for short-term weight loss and high protein intake appears to promote protein sparing and preservation of FFM during weight loss. The macronutrient profile of the diet does not appear to influence calorie intake, but it does appear to influence the quality of weight loss. Other measures of body composition and overall health outcomes should be examined by future studies to appropriately identify the potential health effects between these diet types.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Exploring the benefits of a gluten free diet

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Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that

Background: Individuals in the general populations with a known gluten disorder is believed to be 6% and it is unclear why the gluten free diet (GFD) has risen sharply (28%) in recent years. However, science has revealed that gluten can cause colonic changes in those undiagnosed with a known gluten disorder. The ramifications of these changes are unknown. Three common ingredients found in gluten free products, such as pasta, are corn quinoa and rice. Evidence from the scientific literature has shown that corn and quinoa can produce more colonic hydrogen than refined wheat and rice, indicating that corn and quinoa have a reduced glycemic effect. Since rice and wheat have similar glycemic responses, corn and quinoa pastas would be expected to have a lower glycemic response than rice and wheat pasta

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Aim The aim of his study was to examine the glycemic response to three different types of pasta: wheat, rice and corn. Breath hydrogen, assessment of mood states, blood glucose and insulin were collected after ingestion of these pastas to determine the glycemic effects of these foods.

Methods: A double blinded crossover study design was utilized on a group of healthy individuals, and the test meals of wheat, rice and combinations of rice/corn, and corn/quinoa pastas were consumed one week apart in random order. Collections of fasting venous blood samples for insulin analysis, capillary blood from a finger stick for glucose analysis, breath hydrogen samples and satiety scales were used for glycemic response and mood states were collected prior to the meal (baseline) and then again after ingestion of the test meals. Attempts were made to explore the glycemic response of these test meals in relation to mood states.

Results: The glucose response showed no significant difference at baseline (p = .683) among all groups and no significant differences were seen post treatment at 30 minutes (p = .875). However, after 60 minutes all of the glucose concentrations began to decline except for the rice pasta which peaked at 90 minutes and the wheat pasta gave the most sustained decrease. The AUC glucose values showed no significant difference at both 120 (p=0.196) and 240 (p=0.734) minutes but with wheat pasta producing the lowest mean value. The POMS scores showed no significant differences between groups over time (p=.239) but the wheat group produced the highest score (worsening moods states).

Conclusion: These results indicate that the formulation and processing of gluten free pastas may affect the rate and absorption and the subsequent glycemic response after the consumption of these foods. Whether or not wheat contains an ingredient that slows absorption and/or negatively affects mood remains undetermined warrants future research in this area.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Glycemic Response to Gluten-Free Bread in Healthy Adults

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Background: Research has found that nearly a quarter of the American population follows a gluten-free diet in some capacity, while only about 1% of the population is diagnosed with celiac disease. Although the amount of research-based evidence supporting any health

Background: Research has found that nearly a quarter of the American population follows a gluten-free diet in some capacity, while only about 1% of the population is diagnosed with celiac disease. Although the amount of research-based evidence supporting any health benefits of a gluten-free diet in an individual without a gluten- related disorder is limited, the number of people claiming to follow a gluten-free diet continues to rise. Also, despite an increasing belief that gluten is harmful for health, the potentially undesirable effects of gluten substitutions used in gluten-free foods are largely unknown. Due to the protein network encapsulating starch granules, gluten is thought to lengthen the amount of time needed during starch digestion, thereby reducing postprandial glycemia. Therefore, it is predicted that breads containing gluten will produce a lower glycemic response compared to gluten-free breads. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the glycemic response of gluten-free bread made with different types of flour compared to bread made with gluten-containing wheat flour. Methods: This study involved a 3-week, randomized, single blind crossover study in which 17 healthy individuals were asked to consume a different type of bread each week, 2 of which were gluten-free. Blood glucose was taken by finger prick at fasting as a baseline measurement, then for 2 hours after bread consumption in 30-minute increments. Results: Across the three groups, there was no significant difference in iAUC values after 120 minutes (p=0.192 ). The greatest mean was seen in the gluten-containing bread (145.3 ± 82.6), then the gluten-free bread made with rice flour (125.5 ± 62.8), and lastly the gluten-free bread made with potato and fava bean flour (112.4 ± 64.5). Conclusion: The inconsistent results of this study compared to previous, similar studies suggests that the postprandial glycemic response of gluten-free products can not be generalized as a whole, but instead is dependent on the type of product and the ingredients used to replace the gluten. Although the results did not show a significant difference, it does argue against the belief that gluten-free products are invariably better for health in the general, non-gluten sensitive population.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019