Global Identification of AMPylation Substrates for SidM using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays
AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this intercellular manipulation, there has only been modest progression in the identification of the enzymes with AMPylation capabilities (AMPylators) and their respective targets. The reason for these minimal developments is the inability to analyze a large subset of these proteins. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of the identification and characterization of the proteins, Yu et al developed a high-throughput non-radioactive discovery platform using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) and a validation platform using bead-based assays. The large-scale unbiased screening of potential substrates for two bacterial AMPylators containing Fic domain, VopS and IbpAFic2, had been performed and dozens of novel substrates were identified and confirmed. With the efficiency of this method, the platform was extended to the identification of novel substrates for a Legionella virulence factor, SidM, containing a different adenylyl transferase domain. The screening was performed using NAPPA arrays comprising of 10,000 human proteins, the active AMPylator SidM, and its inactive D110/112A mutant as a negative control. Many potential substrates of SidM were found, including Rab GTPases and non-GTPase proteins. Several of which have been confirmed with the bead-based AMPylation assays.