Matching Items (65)

137466-Thumbnail Image.png

Wet NanoBonding™: Catalyzing Molecular Cross-Bridges and Interphases Between Nanoscopically Smoothed Si-Based Surfaces and Tailoring Surface Energy Components

Description

Dry and steam NanoBonding™ are conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a two-dimensional SiOxHy or hydrated SiOxHy interphase connecting surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. The motivation is to create strong, long

Dry and steam NanoBonding™ are conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a two-dimensional SiOxHy or hydrated SiOxHy interphase connecting surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. The motivation is to create strong, long lasting, hermetically bonded sensors with their electronics for the development of an artificial pancreas and to bond solar cells to glass panels for robust photovoltaic technology. The first step in NanoBonding™ is to synthesize smooth surfaces with 20 nm wide atomic terraces via a precursor phase, ß-cSiO2 on Si(100) and oxygen-deficient SiOx on the silica using the Herbots-Atluri process and Entrepix’s spin etching. Smooth precursor phases act as geometric and chemical template to nucleate and grow macroscopic contacting domains where cross bridging occurs via arrays of molecular strands in the hydrated SiOxHy interphase. Steam pressurization is found to catalyze NanoBonding™ consistently, eliminating the need for direct mechanical compression that limits the size and shape of wafers to be bonded in turn, reducing the cost of processing. Total surface energy measurements via 3 Liquids Contact Angle Analysis (3L CAA) enables accurate quantitative analysis of the total surface energy and each of its components. 3L CAA at each step in the process shows that surface energy drops to 42.4 ± 0.6 mJ/m2 from 57.5 ± 1.4 mJ/m2 after the Herbots-Atluri clean of an “As Received” wafer. 3L CAA after steam pressurization Nanobonding™ shows almost complete elimination from 13.8 mJ/m2 ± 1.0 to 0.002 ±- 0.0002 mJ/m2 in the contribution of acceptors to the total free surface energy, and an increase from 0.2 ± .03 to 23.8± 1.6 mJ/m2 in the contribution of donors. This is consistent with an increase in hydroxylation of the ß-cSiO2 surface as a consistent precursor phase for cross-bridging. This research optimizes the use of glycerin, water, and α-bromo-naphtalene in the use of 3L CAA to effectively quantify the components of total free surface energy which helps to better understand the most consistent method for NanoBonding™.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2013-05

149639-Thumbnail Image.png

Determination of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography

Description

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated nanostructures included Ge quantum dots, Ge/Si core/shell nanowires, and polytype

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated nanostructures included Ge quantum dots, Ge/Si core/shell nanowires, and polytype heterostructures in ZnSe nanobelts. Hole densities were calculated for the first two systems, and the spontaneous polarization for wurtzite ZnSe was determined. Epitaxial Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in boron-doped silicon were studied. Reconstructed phase images showed extra phase shifts near the base of the QDs, which was attributed to hole accumulation in these regions. The resulting charge density was (0.03±0.003) holes
m3, which corresponded to about 30 holes localized to a pyramidal, 25-nm-wide Ge QD. This value was in reasonable agreement with the average number of holes confined to each Ge dot determined using a capacitance-voltage measurement. Hole accumulation in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires was observed and quantified using off-axis electron holography and other electron microscopy techniques. High-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and electron holograms were obtained from specific nanowires. The intensities of the former were utilized to calculate the projected thicknesses for both the Ge core and the Si shell. The excess phase shifts measured by electron holography across the nanowires indicated the presence of holes inside the Ge cores. The hole density in the core regions was calculated to be (0.4±0.2)
m3 based on a simplified coaxial cylindrical model. Homogeneous zincblende/wurtzite heterostructure junctions in ZnSe nanobelts were studied. The observed electrostatic fields and charge accumulation were attributed to spontaneous polarization present in the wurtzite regions since the contributions from piezoelectric polarization were shown to be insignificant based on geometric phase analysis. The spontaneous polarization for the wurtzite ZnSe was calculated to be psp = -(0.0029±0.00013) C/m2, whereas a first principles' calculation gave psp = -0.0063 C/m2. The atomic arrangements and polarity continuity at the zincblende/wurtzite interface were determined through aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field imaging, which revealed no polarity reversal across the interface. Overall, the successful outcomes of these studies confirmed the capability of off-axis electron holography to provide quantitative electrostatic information for nanostructured materials.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

152386-Thumbnail Image.png

Combined photo- and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films

Description

In this dissertation, combined photo-induced and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films is studied through low energy electron spectroscopy analysis and other associated techniques. Nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-terminated diamond films prepared by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method

In this dissertation, combined photo-induced and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films is studied through low energy electron spectroscopy analysis and other associated techniques. Nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-terminated diamond films prepared by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method have been the most focused material. The theme of this research is represented by four interrelated issues. (1) An in-depth study describes combined photo-induced and thermionic emission from nitrogen-doped diamond films on molybdenum substrates, which were illuminated with visible light photons, and the electron emission spectra were recorded as a function of temperature. The diamond films displayed significant emissivity with a low work function of ~ 1.5 eV. The results indicate that these diamond emitters can be applied in combined solar and thermal energy conversion. (2) The nitrogen-doped diamond was further investigated to understand the physical mechanism and material-related properties that enable the combined electron emission. Through analysis of the spectroscopy, optical absorbance and photoelectron microscopy results from sample sets prepared with different configurations, it was deduced that the photo-induced electron generation involves both the ultra-nanocrystalline diamond and the interface between the diamond film and metal substrate. (3) Based on results from the first two studies, possible photon-enhanced thermionic emission was examined from nitrogen-doped diamond films deposited on silicon substrates, which could provide the basis for a novel approach for concentrated solar energy conversion. A significant increase of emission intensity was observed at elevated temperatures, which was analyzed using computer-based modeling and a combination of different emission mechanisms. (4) In addition, the electronic structure of vanadium-oxide-terminated diamond surfaces was studied through in-situ photoemission spectroscopy. Thin layers of vanadium were deposited on oxygen-terminated diamond surfaces which led to oxide formation. After thermal annealing, a negative electron affinity was found on boron-doped diamond, while a positive electron affinity was found on nitrogen-doped diamond. A model based on the barrier at the diamond-oxide interface was employed to analyze the results. Based on results of this dissertation, applications of diamond-based energy conversion devices for combined solar- and thermal energy conversion are proposed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152068-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the efficacy of novel TrkB agonists to augment stroke recovery

Description

Stroke remains the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Most survivors live with residual motor impairments that severely diminish independence and quality of life. After stroke, the only accepted treatment for these patients is motor rehabilitation. However, the

Stroke remains the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Most survivors live with residual motor impairments that severely diminish independence and quality of life. After stroke, the only accepted treatment for these patients is motor rehabilitation. However, the amount and kind of rehabilitation required to induce clinically significant improvements in motor function is rarely given due to the constraints of our current health care system. Research reported in this dissertation contributes towards developing adjuvant therapies that may augment the impact of motor rehabilitation and improve functional outcome. These studies have demonstrated reorganization of maps within motor cortex as a function of experience in both healthy and brain-injured animals by using intracortical microstimulation technique. Furthermore, synaptic plasticity has been identified as a key neural mechanism in directing motor map plasticity, evidenced by restoration of movement representations within the spared cortical tissue accompanied by increase in synapse number translating into motor improvement after stroke. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates synaptic and morphological plasticity in the developing and mature nervous system. Unfortunately, BDNF itself is a poor candidate because of its short half-life, low penetration through the blood brain barrier, and activating multiple receptor units, p75 and TrkB on the neuronal membrane. In order to circumvent this problem efficacy of two recently developed novel TrkB agonists, LM22A-4 and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, that actively penetrate the blood brain barrier and enhance functional recovery. Findings from these dissertation studies indicate that administration of these pharmacological compounds, accompanied by motor rehabilitation provide a powerful therapeutic tool for stroke recovery.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

151937-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and characterization of erbium compound nanowires as high gain optical materials

Description

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in typical Er-doped materials is less than 1 x 1020 cm-3, thus limiting the maximum optical gain to a few dB/cm, too small to be useful for integrated photonics applications. Er compounds could potentially solve this problem since they contain much higher Er density. So far the existing Er compounds suffer from short lifetime and strong upconversion effects, mainly due to poor quality of crystals produced by various methods of thin film growth and deposition. This dissertation explores a new Er compound: erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3(SiO4)2Cl ) in the nanowire form, which facilitates the growth of high quality single crystals. Growth methods for such single crystal ECS nanowires have been established. Various structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The high crystal quality of ECS material leads to a long lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ ions up to 1 ms at Er density higher than 1022 cm-3. This Er lifetime-density product was found to be the largest among all Er containing materials. A unique integrating sphere method was developed to measure the absorption cross section of ECS nanowires from 440 to 1580 nm. Pump-probe experiments demonstrated a 644 dB/cm signal enhancement from a single ECS wire. It was estimated that such large signal enhancement can overcome the absorption to result in a net material gain, but not sufficient to compensate waveguide propagation loss. In order to suppress the upconversion process in ECS, Ytterbium (Yb) and Yttrium (Y) ions are introduced as substituent ions of Er in the ECS crystal structure to reduce Er density. While the addition of Yb ions only partially succeeded, erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) with controllable Er density was synthesized successfully. EYCS with 30 at. % Er was found to be the best. It shows the strongest PL emission at 1.5 μm, and thus can be potentially used as a high gain material.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

151648-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling of self-heating effects in 25nm SOI devices

Description

Since its inception about three decades ago, silicon on insulator (SOI) technology has come a long way to be included in the microelectronics roadmap. Earlier, scientists and engineers focused on ways to increase the microprocessor clock frequency and speed. Today,

Since its inception about three decades ago, silicon on insulator (SOI) technology has come a long way to be included in the microelectronics roadmap. Earlier, scientists and engineers focused on ways to increase the microprocessor clock frequency and speed. Today, with smart phones and tablets gaining popularity, power consumption has become a major factor. In this thesis, self-heating effects in a 25nm fully depleted (FD) SOI device are studied by implementing a 2-D particle based device simulator coupled self-consistently with the energy balance equations for both acoustic and optical phonons. Semi-analytical expressions for acoustic and optical phonon scattering rates (all modes) are derived and evaluated using quadratic dispersion relationships. Moreover, probability distribution functions for the final polar angle after scattering is also computed and the rejection technique is implemented for its selection. Since the temperature profile varies throughout the device, temperature dependent scattering tables are used for the electron transport kernel. The phonon energy balance equations are also modified to account for inelasticity in acoustic phonon scattering for all branches. Results obtained from this simulation help in understanding self-heating and the effects it has on the device characteristics. The temperature profiles in the device show a decreasing trend which can be attributed to the inelastic interaction between the electrons and the acoustic phonons. This is further proven by comparing the temperature plots with the simulation results that assume the elastic and equipartition approximation for acoustic and the Einstein model for optical phonons. Thus, acoustic phonon inelasticity and the quadratic phonon dispersion relationships play a crucial role in studying self-heating effects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

150232-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of strain in core-shell nanowires: a Raman spectroscopy study

Description

Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented for the first time. Geometrical and elastic simplifications are introduced

Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented for the first time. Geometrical and elastic simplifications are introduced to keep the model analytical, which facilitates comparison with experimental results. In particular, the nanowires are assumed to be cylindrical, and their elastic constants isotropic. The simple analytical model is subsequently validated by performing numerical calculations using realistic nanowire geometries and cubic, anisotropic elastic constants. The comparison confirms that the analytic model is an excellent approximation that greatly facilitates quantitative Raman work, with expected errors in the strain determination that do not exceed 10%. Experimental Raman spectra of a variety of core-shell nanowires are presented, and the strain in the nanowires is assessed using the models described above. It is found that all structures present a significant degree of strain relaxation relative to ideal, fully strained Ge-Si core-shell structures. The analytical models are modified to quantify this strain relaxation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150236-Thumbnail Image.png

In-situ environmental TEM studies for developing structure-activity relationship in supported metal catalyst

Description

In-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) is a powerful tool for following the evolution of supported metal nanoparticles under different reacting gas conditions at elevated temperatures. The ability to observe the events in real time under reacting gas conditions can

In-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) is a powerful tool for following the evolution of supported metal nanoparticles under different reacting gas conditions at elevated temperatures. The ability to observe the events in real time under reacting gas conditions can provide significant information on the fundamental processes taking place in catalytic materials, from which the performance of the catalyst can be understood. The first part of this dissertation presents the application of in-situ ETEM studies in developing structure-activity relationship in supported metal nanoparticles. In-situ ETEM studies on nanostructures in parallel with ex-situ reactor studies of conversions and selectivities were performed for partial oxidation of methane (POM) to syngas (CO+H2) on Ni/SiO2, Ru/SiO2 and NiRu/SiO2 catalysts. During POM, the gas composition varies along the catalyst bed with increasing temperature. It is important to consider these variations in gas composition in order to design experiments for in-situ ETEM. In-situ ETEM experiments were performed under three different reacting gas conditions. First in the presence of H2, this represents the state of the fresh catalyst for the catalytic reaction. Later in the presence of CH4 and O2 in 2:1 ratio, this is the composition of the reacting gases for the POM reaction and this composition acts as an oxidizing environment. Finally in the presence of CH4, this is the reducing gas. Oxidation and reduction behavior of Ni, Ru and NiRu nanoparticles were followed in an in-situ ETEM under reacting gas conditions and the observations were correlated with the performance of the catalyst for POM. The later part of the dissertation presents a technique for determining the gas compositional analysis inside the in-situ ETEM using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Techniques were developed to identify the gas composition using both inner-shell and low-loss spectroscopy of EELS. Using EELS, an "operando TEM" technique was successfully developed for detecting the gas phase catalysis inside the ETEM. Overall this research demonstrates the importance of in-situ ETEM studies in understanding the structure-activity relationship in supported-metal catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis application.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150243-Thumbnail Image.png

Thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA nanostructure assembly

Description

ABSTRACT The unique structural features of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that are of considerable biological interest also make it a valuable engineering material. Perhaps the most useful property of DNA for molecular engineering is its ability to self-assemble into predictable, double

ABSTRACT The unique structural features of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that are of considerable biological interest also make it a valuable engineering material. Perhaps the most useful property of DNA for molecular engineering is its ability to self-assemble into predictable, double helical secondary structures. These interactions are exploited to design a variety of DNA nanostructures, which can be organized into both discrete and periodic structures. This dissertation focuses on studying the dynamic behavior of DNA nanostructure recognition processes. The thermodynamics and kinetics of nanostructure binding are evaluated, with the intention of improving our ability to understand and control their assembly. Presented here are a series of studies toward this goal. First, multi-helical DNA nanostructures were used to investigate how the valency and arrangement of the connections between DNA nanostructures affect super-structure formation. The study revealed that both the number and the relative position of connections play a significant role in the stability of the final assembly. Next, several DNA nanostructures were designed to gain insight into how small changes to the nanostructure scaffolds, intended to vary their conformational flexibility, would affect their association equilibrium. This approach yielded quantitative information about the roles of enthalpy and entropy in the affinity of polyvalent DNA nanostructure interactions, which exhibit an intriguing compensating effect. Finally, a multi-helical DNA nanostructure was used as a model `chip' for the detection of a single stranded DNA target. The results revealed that the rate constant of hybridization is strongly dominated by a rate-limiting nucleation step.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150402-Thumbnail Image.png

Electronic and ionic transport in carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures

Description

This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs. The electrical ionic current

This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs. The electrical ionic current is measured. Translocation of small single stranded DNA oligomers is marked by large transient increases in current through the tube and confirmed by a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. Carbon nanotubes simplify the construction of nanopores, permit new types of electrical measurement, and open new avenues for control of DNA translocation. The second experiment constructed devices in which the interior of a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) acts as a nanofluidic channel that connects two fluid reservoirs, permitting measurement of the electronic properties of the SWCNT as it is wetted by an analyte. Wetting of the inside of the SWCNT by water turns the transistor on, while wetting of the outside has little effect. This finding may provide a new method to investigate water behavior at nanoscale. This also opens a new avenue for building sensors in which the SWCNT functions as an electronic detector. This thesis also presents some experiments that related to nanofabrication, such as construction of FET with tin sulfide (SnS) quantum ribbon. This work demonstrates the application of solution processed IV-VI semiconductor nanostructures in nanoscale devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011