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Incidence of injury in relation to limb dominance in Arizona State University men's and women's gymnastics teams

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Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are more likely to have more upper body injuries compared to

Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are more likely to have more upper body injuries compared to lower body injuries whereas female gymnasts are more likely to have lower body injuries. The majority of all gymnastics injuries are sprains that are most likely to occur during the landing phase on the floor exercise during routine performance or competition. Gymnastics injuries are also more prevalent in older gymnasts, like those at the collegiate level. However, there is limited research on the effects of limb dominance on injury occurrence in both male and female gymnasts at the collegiate level. This study was designed to examine the effect of both upper and lower body limb dominance on injury occurrence in Division I male and female gymnasts at Arizona State University during competition season. Thirty-seven subjects were recruited from the Arizona State University Men's and Women's Gymnastics teams. Athletic trainers/coaches from each team were asked to record injury incidence during the 2013 competition season from January through April. Injury type, body location, event of occurrence, and location of injury (practice or competition) were recorded along with the gymnast's upper and lower body limb dominance (right or left). Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between male and female gymnasts in that female gymnasts are more likely to be injured than their male counterparts (P = 0.023). However, there were no significant findings between limb dominance and injury incidence. Limb dominance did not show any relationship with side of injury, but a trend in the data shows that right-sided dominant athletes, both upper and lower body, were more likely to be injured overall than left-sided dominant athletes. A trend in the data also shows that injury is more likely to occur on the floor exercise than any other gymnastics event for both men and women.

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Date Created
2013

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Body composition and physical activity maintenance one year after a 12-week exercise intervention in women

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Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women who continued to exercise regularly but initially gained weight would lose the weight gained, reverting back to baseline with no restoration of set-point, or continue to lose weight if weight was initially lost. Conversely, those who discontinued purposeful exercise at the conclusion of the study were expected to continue to gain or regain weight. Methods: 24 women who completed the initial 12-week exercise intervention (90min/week of supervised treadmill walking at 70%VO2peak) participated in a follow-up study one year after the conclusion of the exercise intervention. Subjects underwent Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry at baseline, 12-weeks, and 15 months, and filled out physical activity questionnaires at 15 months. Results: A considerable amount of heterogeneity was observed in body weight and fat mass changes among subjects, but there was no significant overall change in weight or fat mass from baseline to follow-up. 15 women were categorized as compensators and as a group gained weight (+ 0.94±3.26kg) and fat mass (+0.22±3.25kg) compared to the 9 non-compensators who lost body weight (-0.26±3.59kg) and had essentially no change in fat mass (+0.01±2.61kg) from 12-weeks to follow-up. There was a significant between group difference (p=.003) in change in fat mass from 12-weeks to follow-up between subjects who continued to regularly vigorously exercise (-2.205±3.070kg), and those who did not (+1.320±2.156kg). Additionally, energy compensation from baseline to 12-weeks and early body weight and composition changes during the intervention were moderate predictors of body weight and composition changes from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: The main finding of this study is that following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women displayed a net loss of fat mass during the follow-up period if regular vigorous exercise was continued, regardless of whether they were classified as compensators or non-compensators during the initial intervention.

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2013

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The feasibility of a spirituality-based wellness program on stress reduction and health behavior change

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Introduction: Several faith-based or faith-placed programs have focused on the physical dimension of wellness in efforts to improve health by increasing physical activity and improving diet behaviors. However, these programs were not designed to intervene on the mental dimension of

Introduction: Several faith-based or faith-placed programs have focused on the physical dimension of wellness in efforts to improve health by increasing physical activity and improving diet behaviors. However, these programs were not designed to intervene on the mental dimension of wellness which is critical for stress reduction and health behavior change. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a spirituality-based stress reduction and health behavior change intervention using the Spiritual Framework of Coping (SFC) model. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental one group pretest posttest design. The study was a total of eight weeks conducted at a non-denominational Christian church. Participants were recruited from the church through announcements and flyers. The Optimal Health program met once a week for 1.5 hours with weekly phone calls during an additional four week follow-up period. Feasibility was assessed by the acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited efficacy of the program. Analysis: Frequencies for demographics were assessed. Statistical analyses of feasibility objectives were assessed by frequencies and distribution of responses to feasibility evaluations. Limited efficacy of pretest and posttest measures were conducted using paired t-test (p <.05). Results: The Optimal Health Program was positively accepted by participants. The demand for the program was shown with average attendance of 78.7%. The program was successfully implemented as shown by meeting session objectives and 88% homework completion. The program was both practical for the intended participants and was successfully integrated within the existing environment. Limited efficacy changes within the program were mostly non-significant. Conclusion: This study tested the feasibility of implementing the Optimal Health program that specifically targeted the structural components of the Spiritual Framework of Coping Model identified to create meaning making and enhance well-being. This program may ultimately be used to help individuals improve and balance the spiritual, mental, and physical dimensions of wellness. However, length of study and limited efficacy measures will need to be reevaluated for program success.

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Date Created
2012

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

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Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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Date Created
2014

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A pilot study to examine the impact of a 7-day gratitude journal on perceptions of physical activity and happiness in the workplace

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Introduction: Less than half of U.S. adults meet the aerobic physical activity guidelines to exercise at least 150 minutes a week. An individual's decision to be physically active is influenced by their perceptions of physical activity. To address perceptions, interventions

Introduction: Less than half of U.S. adults meet the aerobic physical activity guidelines to exercise at least 150 minutes a week. An individual's decision to be physically active is influenced by their perceptions of physical activity. To address perceptions, interventions need to be implemented where adults spend one third of their day; the workplace. A number of physical activity interventions have been conducted and few have been successful at improving physical activity; therefore, there is a need to explore novel approaches to improve physical activity in the worksite. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a seven-day gratitude intervention on perceptions of physical activity and happiness in the workplace. Methods: Full-time employees at two worksites participated in a seven-day online journaling study. Participants were randomized into the intervention (gratitude) or control group and were assessed for perceptions of physical activity and happiness at baseline, immediate post-test (day 7) and one-week follow-up (day 14). Results: Results of this study indicate that the seven-day gratitude intervention may not significantly improve perceptions of physical activity or increase happiness. Future research should consider assessing the individual's readiness for change at baseline, increasing the length of the intervention, testing participant level of gratitude at baseline and employing a larger sample size.

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Date Created
2014

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The Effects of Exposure to Body Positive and Fitspiration Instagram Content on Undergraduate Women’s State Body Satisfaction, State Body Appreciation, and Mood

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The promulgation of the thin-ideal is associated with bulimia, dieting, supplement use, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. “Fitspiration” was created as an “antidote” to the thin-ideal through the promotion of healthy eating and exercise; however, research indicates Fitspiration continues to

The promulgation of the thin-ideal is associated with bulimia, dieting, supplement use, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. “Fitspiration” was created as an “antidote” to the thin-ideal through the promotion of healthy eating and exercise; however, research indicates Fitspiration continues to promote the thin-ideal with similarly detrimental outcomes. Recently, research has shifted from a focus on body disturbance to concepts of positive body image (Halliwell, 2015), often researched through the concept of body appreciation. While the research is limited, a few studies have shown increases in body appreciation and mood after viewing body positive images. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the impact of exposure to body positive and Fitspiration Instagram images on the body satisfaction, body appreciation, and mood of undergraduate women. Participants were 98 female undergraduate students (18-29 years old) currently attending Arizona State University. Participants were randomly assigned to view Fitspiration, Body Positive, or appearance neutral Instagram images. Dependent variables of state body appreciation, state body dissatisfaction, and state mood were measured using Visual Analogue Scales. Trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. Qualitative short-answer questions were included as an exploratory aim. A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine group differences in post-test scores followed by post-hoc analyses using the Bonferroni correction when significant. After controlling for baseline score, trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and BMI, post-test body appreciation scores within Fitspiration condition were significantly lower than the control (MD= 9.818, SE=3.743, p=.031) and Body Positive condition (MD=9.372, SE=3.492, p=0.26). After controlling for baseline score, trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and BMI, the Body Positive condition demonstrated significantly higher post-test body satisfaction scores than the control (MD= 11.134, SE=3.093, p=.002) and Fitspiration condition (MD=17.312, SE=3.092, p=<.001). After controlling for baseline scores, mean post-test positive mood scores within the Fitspiration group were significantly lower than the Body Positive condition (MD=-0.378, SE=.135, p=.019). There were no differences in post-test negative mood across conditions. Findings suggest short-term exposure to body positive images may improve body appreciation, Body Positivity, and positive mood among undergraduate females.

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2020