Matching Items (107)

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Pueblo Health: Examining Indigenous Concepts of Well-Being and How Perceptions Have Shifted to Health Today

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Indigenous Pueblo conceptualization of living well today has shifted mainly due to Federal policies that forced Pueblo people to conform to western way of living moving away from a lifestyle

Indigenous Pueblo conceptualization of living well today has shifted mainly due to Federal policies that forced Pueblo people to conform to western way of living moving away from a lifestyle that embraced holistic practices. Native people cannot escape how Western society has shaped the concept of health however, the voices of the Pueblo people and others working in health, acknowledged that Indigenous philosophies, beliefs and practices need to be part of Native health conversations today. My discussion problematizes Native health characterized today as typically represented through the biomedical perspective with the primary focus being the body. Such a limiting perspective dismisses the importance of Indigenous philosophies that embraces broader concepts of well-being to include holistic elements of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being. This study examines the shift in perceptions seeking input from patient and medical providers regarding their interactions, particularly communications in a healthcare setting. Pueblo patients defined what was important in their communications with their health provider. Likewise, health providers referred to their experiences providing healthcare to Native patients to describe what is important to know when treating a Pueblo patient. Patients identified family (without specific medical family histories disclosed), knowledge/beliefs that were or were not associated to the patient’s culture, as well as community and family dynamics (that did not delve into traditional medicine or sacred ceremonial activities) as important for their provider to know. The results from the research study highlights the need to examine Native American cultural diversity education in healthcare including advancing improvements in the training of medical providers.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Intrinsic Fatigue & Its Relation to Workload

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The study aimed to determine the relationship of subjective perception of wellness (Intrinsic Fatigue) and Global Positioning Satellite derived workload amongst elite high school soccer players. Twenty-nine (16.4 ± 1.54

The study aimed to determine the relationship of subjective perception of wellness (Intrinsic Fatigue) and Global Positioning Satellite derived workload amongst elite high school soccer players. Twenty-nine (16.4 ± 1.54 years) male participants completed a mobile app-based wellness questionnaire comprising of 6 subjective markers prior to 10 workload variables being measured by STATSports 10Hz GPS units later that same day. Only instances where both wellness and GPS reports qualified for analyses (N=231 exposures). No significant differences were reported in reported wellness within- or between-weeks (p > 0.05) with average Effect Sizes (ES) ranging from 0.001 to 0.15. Total Distance (TD) was significantly different (p < 0.05) within week. All GPS variables except TD and Distance per Minute (DpM) were significantly different (p < 0.05) between-weeks. Average GPS ES sizes ranged from 0.02 to 0.58. Wellness and GPS or it’s ESs were not correlated, with correlations ranging from -1.000 to 0.207. The results suggest monitoring of GPS reports to be a practical method of monitoring variation in player workload but does not support subjective questionnaires as a means of monitoring player wellness reflecting these workload variations in youth populations.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Environmental Stimuli Activates Early Growth Response 3 (EGR3), an Immediate Early Gene Residing at the Center of a Biological Pathway Associated with Risk for Schizophrenia

Description

Schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder, affects 1% of the population. This multifaceted disorder is comprised of positive (hallucinations/psychosis), negative (social withdrawal/anhedonia) and cognitive symptoms. While treatments for schizophrenia have advanced

Schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder, affects 1% of the population. This multifaceted disorder is comprised of positive (hallucinations/psychosis), negative (social withdrawal/anhedonia) and cognitive symptoms. While treatments for schizophrenia have advanced over the past few years, high economic burdens are still conferred to society, totaling more than $34 billion in direct annual costs to the United States of America. Thus, a critical need exists to identify the factors that contribute towards the etiology of schizophrenia. This research aimed to determine the interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the etiology of schizophrenia. Specifically, this research shows that the immediate early gene, early growth response 3 (EGR3), which is upregulated in response to neuronal activity, resides at the center of a biological pathway to confer risk for schizophrenia. While schizophrenia-risk proteins including neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR’s) have been identified upstream of EGR3, the downstream targets of EGR3 remain relatively unknown. This research demonstrates that early growth response 3 regulates the expression of the serotonin 2A-receptor (5HT2AR) in the frontal cortex following the physiologic stimulus, sleep deprivation. This effect is translated to the level of protein as 8 hours of sleep-deprivation results in the upregulation of 5HT2ARs, a target of antipsychotic medications. Additional downstream targets were identified following maximal upregulation of EGR3 through electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS). Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its epigenetic regulator, growth arrest DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45B) are upregulated one-hour following ECS in the hippocampus and require the presence of EGR3. These proteins play important roles in both cellular proliferation and dendritic structural changes. Next, the effects of ECS on downstream neurobiological processes, hippocampal cellular proliferation and dendritic structural changes were examined. Following ECS, hippocampal cellular proliferationwas increased, and dendritic structural changes were observed in both wild-type and early growth response 3 knock-out (Egr3-/-) mice. Effects in the number of dendritic spines and dendritic complexity following ECS were not found to require EGR3. Collectively, these results demonstrate that neuronal activity leads to the regulation of schizophrenia risk proteins by EGR3 and point to a possible molecular mechanism contributing risk for schizophrenia.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Association of objectively measured physical activity with cognitive function in black and white older adults: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Description

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of objectively measured PA and sedentary time with cognitive function among older adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the parent REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. ActicalTM accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), high light PA (HLPA), low light PA (LLPA) and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment were defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.

Results: Of the 7,339 participants who provided accelerometer wear data > 4 days (70.1 ± 8.6 yr, 54.2% women, 31.7% African American), 320 participants exhibited impaired cognition. In cross-sectional analysis, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 39% lower odds of cognitive impairment than those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.61, 95% C.I.: 0.39-0.95) after full adjustment. Further analysis shows most quartiles of MVPA% and HLPA% were significantly associated with executive function and memory (P<0.01). During 2.7 ± 0.5 years of follow-up, 3,385 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis, with 157 incident cases of cognitive impairment. After adjustments, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 51% lower hazards of cognitive impairment (HR: 0.49, 95% C.I.: 0.28-0.86). Additionally, MVPA% was inversely associated with change in memory z-scores (P<0.01), while the highest quartile of HLPA% was inversely associated with change in executive function and memory z-scores (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA% were independently associated with lower prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and better memory and executive function in older adults. Higher levels of HLPA% were also independently associated with better memory and executive function. The amount of MVPA associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (259 min/week) is >70% higher than the minimal amount of MVPA recommended by PA guidelines.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Positivity at work: perceived work-performance, work-engagement, and health in full-time workers

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This study was designed to investigate whether workplace positivity of full-time workers was related to health ratings. Positivity was conceptualized by a high rating of perceived work-performance, and work-engagement as

This study was designed to investigate whether workplace positivity of full-time workers was related to health ratings. Positivity was conceptualized by a high rating of perceived work-performance, and work-engagement as defined by the Utrecht Work-Engagement Scale, including vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli, & Bakker, 2004). Health was measured utilizing the RAND SF-36 health survey including the eight subscales: overall, general health, physical and social functioning, emotional well-being, role limitations due to physical health or emotional problems, energy or fatigue, and bodily pain. All measures were collected simultaneously. It was predicted that perceived work-performance and all measures of work-engagement are positively associated with the aforementioned health ratings. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher (positive) perception of work-performance and vigor were positively related to health ratings. Absorption was negatively related to health ratings. Dedication was only negatively related to physical functioning. These findings suggest that not all measures of positivity in the workplace are related to better health. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Acute affects [i.e. effects] of a walking workstation on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive adults

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INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear.

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to a single worksite walking day and a normal sedentary work day in pre-hypertensive adults. METHODS: Participants were 7 pre-hypertensive (127 + 8 mmHg / 83 + 8 mmHg) adults (3 male, 4 female, age = 42 + 12 yr) who participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control and a walking treatment. Only those who indicated regularly sitting at least 8 hours/day and no structured physical activity were enrolled. Treatment days were randomly assigned and were performed one week apart. Walking treatment consisted of periodically increasing walk time up to 2.5 hours over the course of an 8 hour work day on a walking workstation (Steelcase Company, Grand Rapids, MI). Walk speed was set at 1 mph. Participants wore an ambulatory blood pressure cuff (Oscar 2, SunTech Medical, Morrisville, NC) for 24-hours on both treatment days. Participants maintained normal daily activities on the control day. ABP data collected from 9:00 am until 10:00 pm of the same day were included in statistical analyses. Linear mixed models were used to detect differences in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by treatment condition over the whole day and post workday for the time periods between 4 -10 pm when participants were no longer at work. RESULTS:BP was significantly lower in response to the walking treatment compared to the control day (Mean SBP 126 +7 mmHg vs.124 +7 mmHg, p=.043; DBP 80 + 3 mmHg vs. 77 + 3 mmHg, p = 0.001 respectively). Post workday (4:00 to 10:00 pm) SBP decreased 3 mmHg (p=.017) and DBP decreased 4 mmHg (p<.001) following walking. CONCLUSION: Even low intensity exercise such as walking on a walking workstation is effective for significantly reducing acute BP when compared to a normal work day.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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The differences in correlates of physical activity between a sample of non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites with arthritis

Description

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed on potential correlates of PA based on the Social Ecological Model (Mcleroy et al., 1988), and (3) if PA participation varied by race/ethnicity after controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of data collected from 2006-2008 in Chicago, IL as part of the Midwest Roybal Center for Health Promotion. Bivariate analyses were used to assess potential differences between race in meeting either ACR or ACSM PA guidelines. Comparisons by race between potential socio-demographic correlates and meeting physical activity guidelines were assessed using Chi-squares. Potential differences by race in psychosocial, arthritis, and health-related and environmental correlates were assessed using T-tests. Finally, logistic regression analyses were used to examine if race was still associated with PA after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A greater proportion of NHW (68.1% and 35.3%) than NHB (46.5% and 20.9%) met both the arthritis-specific and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations for physical activity, respectively. NHB had significantly lower self-efficacy for exercise and reported greater impairments in physical function compared to NHW. Likewise, NHB reported more crime and less aesthetics within their neighborhood. NHW were 2.56 times more likely to meet arthritis-specific PA guidelines than NHB after controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and BMI. In contrast, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, age and gender were the only significant predictors of meeting ACSM PA guidelines. Discussion: There were significant differences between NHB and NHW individuals with arthritis in meeting PA guidelines. After controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI non-Hispanic White individuals were still significantly more likely to meet PA guidelines. Interventions aimed at promoting higher levels of physical activity among individuals with arthritis need to consider neighborhood aesthetics and crime when designing programs. More arthritis-specific programs are needed in close proximity to neighborhoods in an effort to promote physical activity.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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The energy cost of walking and cycling in young and older adults

Description

The effects of aging on muscular efficiency are controversial. Proponents for increased efficiency suggest that age-related changes in muscle enhance efficiency in senescence. Exercise study results are mixed due to

The effects of aging on muscular efficiency are controversial. Proponents for increased efficiency suggest that age-related changes in muscle enhance efficiency in senescence. Exercise study results are mixed due to varying modalities, ages, and efficiency calculations. The present study attempted to address oxygen uptake, caloric expenditure, walking economy, and gross
et cycling efficiency in young (18-59 years old) and older (60-81 years old) adults (N=444). Walking was performed at three miles per hour by 86 young (mean = 29.60, standard deviation (SD) = 10.50 years old) and 121 older adults (mean = 66.80, SD = 4.50 years old). Cycling at 50 watts (60-70 revolutions per minute) was performed by 116 young (mean= 29.00, SD= 10.00 years old) and 121 older adults (m = 67.10 SD = 4.50 years old). Steady-state sub-maximal gross
et oxygen uptake and caloric expenditures from each activity and rest were analyzed. Net walking economy was represented by net caloric expenditure (kilocalories/kilogram/min). Cycling measures included percent gross
et cycling efficiency (kilo-calorie derived). Linear regressions were used to assess each measure as a function of age. Differences in age group means were assessed using independent t-tests for each modality (alpha = 0.05). No significant differences in mean oxygen uptake nor walking economy were found between young and older walkers (p>0.05). Older adults performing cycle ergometry demonstrated lower gross
et oxygen uptakes and lower gross caloric expenditures (p< 0.05).

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Date Created
  • 2014

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The effects of omega 3 supplementation on markers of obesity and endothelial function in healthy subjects

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ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result in impaired vasodilation through scavenging of NO. Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is beneficial at reducing body weight and in lowering many cardiovascular risk factors like atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine the change in plasma concentrations of leptin, nitric oxide, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in addition to examining the association between leptin and NO in healthy normal weight adult female subjects before and following omega 3 intakes. Participants were randomly assigned to either a fish oil group (600 mg per day) or a control group (1000 mg of coconut oil per day) for 8 weeks. Results showed no significant difference in the percent change of leptin over the 8 week supplementation period for either group (15.3±31.9 for fish oil group, 7.83±27 for control group; p=0.763). The percent change in NO was similarly not significantly altered in either group (-1.97±22 decline in fish oil group, 11.8±53.9 in control group; p=0.960). Likewise, the percent change in superoxide dismutase for each group was not significant following 8 weeks of supplementation (fish oil group: 11.94±20.94; control group: 11.8±53.9; p=0.362). The Pearson correlation co-efficient comparing the percent change of both leptin and NO was r2= -0.251 demonstrating a mildly negative, albeit insignificant, relationship between these factors. Together, these findings suggest that daily supplementation with 600 mg omega 3 in healthy females is not beneficial for improving these cardiovascular risk markers. Future studies in this area should include male subjects as well as overweight subjects with larger doses of fish oil that are equivalent to three or more servings per week. The importance of gender cannot be underestimated since estrogen has protective effects in the vasculature of females that may have masked any further protective effects of the fish oil. In addition, overweight individuals are often leptin-resistant and develop impaired vasodilation resulting from superoxide-mediated scavenging of nitric oxide. Therefore, the reported antioxidant and weight loss properties of omega 3 supplementation may greatly benefit overweight individuals.

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Date Created
  • 2014