Matching Items (3)

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Discovery and characterization of a potential human AMPylator

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Protein AMPylation is a recently discovered and relatively unstudied post-translational modification (PTM). AMPylation has previously been shown to play an important role in metabolic regulation and host pathogenesis in bacteria,

Protein AMPylation is a recently discovered and relatively unstudied post-translational modification (PTM). AMPylation has previously been shown to play an important role in metabolic regulation and host pathogenesis in bacteria, but the recent identification of potential AMPylators across many species in every domain of life has supported the possibility that AMPylation could be a more fundamental and physiologically significant regulatory PTM. For the first time, we characterized the auto-AMPylation capability of the human protein SOS1 through in vitro AMPylation experiments using full-length protein and whole-domain truncation mutants. We found that SOS1 can become AMPylated at a tyrosine residue possibly within the Cdc25 domain of the protein, the Dbl homology domain is vital for efficient auto-AMPylation activity, and the C-terminal proline-rich domain exhibits a complex regulatory function. The proline-rich domain alone also appears to be capable of catalyzing a separate, unidentified covalent self-modification using a fluorescent ATP analogue. Finally, SOS1 was shown to be capable of catalyzing the AMPylation of two endogenous human protein substrates: a ubiquitous, unidentified protein of ~49kDa and another breast-cancer specific, unidentified protein of ~28kDa.

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  • 2014-05

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Global Identification of AMPylation Substrates for SidM using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

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AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this intercellular manipulation, there has only been modest progression in the identification of the enzymes with AMPylation capabilities (AMPylators) and their respective targets. The reason for these minimal developments is the inability to analyze a large subset of these proteins. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of the identification and characterization of the proteins, Yu et al developed a high-throughput non-radioactive discovery platform using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) and a validation platform using bead-based assays. The large-scale unbiased screening of potential substrates for two bacterial AMPylators containing Fic domain, VopS and IbpAFic2, had been performed and dozens of novel substrates were identified and confirmed. With the efficiency of this method, the platform was extended to the identification of novel substrates for a Legionella virulence factor, SidM, containing a different adenylyl transferase domain. The screening was performed using NAPPA arrays comprising of 10,000 human proteins, the active AMPylator SidM, and its inactive D110/112A mutant as a negative control. Many potential substrates of SidM were found, including Rab GTPases and non-GTPase proteins. Several of which have been confirmed with the bead-based AMPylation assays.

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  • 2013-05

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Protein post translational modifications in human diseases: bacterial glycosylation profiling by peptide microarray protein phosphorylation analysis in high risk neuroblastoma

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ABSTRACT

Post Translational Modifications (PTMs) are a series of chemical modifications with the capacity to expand the structural and functional repertoire of proteins. PTMs can regulate protein-protein interaction, localization, protein

ABSTRACT

Post Translational Modifications (PTMs) are a series of chemical modifications with the capacity to expand the structural and functional repertoire of proteins. PTMs can regulate protein-protein interaction, localization, protein turn-over, the active state of the protein, and much more. This can dramatically affect cell processes as relevant as gene expression, cell-cell recognition, and cell signaling. Along these lines, this Ph.D. thesis examines the role of two of the most important PTMs: glycosylation and phosphorylation.

In chapters 2, 3 and 4, a 10,000 peptide microarray is used to analyze the glycan variations in a series lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram negative bacteria. This research was the first to demonstrate that using a small subset of random sequence peptides, it was possible to identify a small subset with the capacity to bind to the LPS of bacteria. These peptides bound to LPS not only in the solid surface of the array but also in solution as demonstrated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and flow cytometry. Interestingly, some of the LPS binding peptides also exhibit antimicrobial activity, a property that is also analyzed in this work.

In chapters 5 and 6, the role of protein phosphorylation, another PTM, is analyzed in the context of human cancer. High risk neuroblastoma, a very aggressive pediatric cancer, was studied with emphasis on the phosphorylations of two selected oncoproteins: the transcription factor NMYC and the adaptor protein ShcC. Both proteins were isolated from high risk neuroblastoma cells, and a targeted-directed tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology was used to identify the phosphorylation sites in each protein. Using this method dramatically improved the phosphorylation site detection and increased the number of sites detected up to 250% in comparison with previous studies. Several of the novel identified sites were located in functional domain of the proteins and that some of them are homologous to known active sites in other proteins of the same family. The chapter concludes with a computational prediction of the kinases that potentially phosphorylate those sites and a series of assays to show this phosphorylation occurred in vitro.

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  • 2014