Matching Items (11)

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Characterization of Silicon MESFETs for Mixed Signal and RF Electronics

Description

MESFETs are used in high frequency applications and are typically made from GaAs. Dr. Trevor Thornton designed a silicon-on-insulator MESFET \u2014 a cheaper alternative with competitive capabilities. This paper concerns

MESFETs are used in high frequency applications and are typically made from GaAs. Dr. Trevor Thornton designed a silicon-on-insulator MESFET \u2014 a cheaper alternative with competitive capabilities. This paper concerns the characterization and modeling of this device to exhibit its marketability as a CMOS integrated transistor. Overviews of the MESFET's history and DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) are offered.

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  • 2014-05

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Measurements and Simulations of Self-Heating in 40nm SOI MOSFETs

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Combining the rapid development of semiconductor technologies, miniaturization of integrated circuits (ICs), and scaling down the device size is trending towards faster, cheaper, and more reliable components for low-power integrated

Combining the rapid development of semiconductor technologies, miniaturization of integrated circuits (ICs), and scaling down the device size is trending towards faster, cheaper, and more reliable components for low-power integrated circuits. Most research and development relate to efficiency, structure, materials, and performance. However, the thermal problem is also created and becomes more critical with shrinking device dimensions and increased integration densities, such that it affects the device performance and leads to degradation and damage. At the nanometer scale, the self-heating effect (SHE) is one of the main factors to degrade devices. Therefore, tracking and quantifying the SHE is important for reliability and efficiency issues. In this dissertation, engineers design two identical and closely spaced 40nm gate length silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistors (NMOSFETs) that share a common source with the same active silicon region. One of the MOSFETs acts as a heater to heat-up the active region, while the other one is a thermometer to evaluate the SHE and local temperature changes. The thermometer provides a method to calibrate the numerical models of self-heating and track the heat flow. Moreover, it also involves a trap-rich SOI wafer technology, in which a trap-rich layer, with higher resistivity and lower thermal conductivity compared to conventional bulk silicon substrates. The trap-rich SOI substrates can reduce the cross-talk and minimize the power consumption to increase the system performance. In particular, it offers a solution to radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) which require fast switching and low leakage. In high power amplifier (PA) applications, Watt-level PAs operates at less than 50% efficiency because of temperature limitations. The author uses experimental measurements of the local temperature changes, combined with simulations to examine the heat flow and temperature distribution. The approach may be useful to build a self-test application, because it can quantify the temperature changes by putting one or multiple NMOSFET thermometers around a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) power amplifier, while only adding minimum die area. It points to ways in which it can optimize the reliability of RFIC applications, which operate under high-temperature or high-power conditions to protect the device before it is overheated or damaged.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Biosensors and CMOS interface circuits

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Analysing and measuring of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. Point of care diagnostic system, composing of biosensors, have promising applications for

Analysing and measuring of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. Point of care diagnostic system, composing of biosensors, have promising applications for providing cheap, accurate and portable diagnosis. Owing to these expanding medical applications and advances made by semiconductor industry biosensors have seen a tremendous growth in the past few decades. Also emergence of microfluidics and non-invasive biosensing applications are other marker propellers. Analyzing biological signals using transducers is difficult due to the challenges in interfacing an electronic system to the biological environment. Detection limit, detection time, dynamic range, specificity to the analyte, sensitivity and reliability of these devices are some of the challenges in developing and integrating these devices. Significant amount of research in the field of biosensors has been focused on improving the design, fabrication process and their integration with microfluidics to address these challenges. This work presents new techniques, design and systems to improve the interface between the electronic system and the biological environment. This dissertation uses CMOS circuit design to improve the reliability of these devices. Also this work addresses the challenges in designing the electronic system used for processing the output of the transducer, which converts biological signal into electronic signal.

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  • 2014

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Predictive Process Design Kits for the 7 nm and 5 nm Technology Nodes

Description

Recent years have seen fin field effect transistors (finFETs) dominate modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes, [1][2], e.g., at the sub 20 nm technology nodes, as they alleviate short

Recent years have seen fin field effect transistors (finFETs) dominate modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes, [1][2], e.g., at the sub 20 nm technology nodes, as they alleviate short channel effects, provide lower leakage, and enable some continued VDD scaling. However, a realistic finFET based predictive process design kit (PDK) that supports investigation into both circuit and physical design, encompassing all aspects of digital design, for academic use has been unavailable. While the finFET based FreePDK15 was supplemented with a standard cell library, it lacked full physical verification (LVS) and parasitic extraction at the time [3][4]. Consequently, the only available sub 45 nm educational PDKs are the planar CMOS based Synopsys 32/28 nm and FreePDK45 (45 nm PDK) [5][6]. The cell libraries available for those processes are not realistic since they use large cell heights, in contrast to recent industry trends. Additionally, the SRAM rules and cells provided by these PDKs are not realistic. Because finFETs have a 3D structure, which affects transistor density, using planar libraries scaled to sub 22 nm dimensions for research is likely to give poor accuracy.

Commercial libraries and PDKs, especially for advanced nodes, are often difficult to obtain for academic use, and access to the actual physical layouts is even more restricted. Furthermore, the necessary non disclosure agreements (NDAs) are un manageable for large university classes and the plethora of design rules can distract from the key points. NDAs also make it difficult for the publication of physical design as these may disclose proprietary design rules and structures.

This work focuses on the development of realistic PDKs for academic use that overcome these limitations. These PDKs, developed for the N7 and N5 nodes, even before 7 nm and 5 nm processes were available in industry, are thus predictive. The predictions have been based on publications of the continually improving lithography, as well as estimates of what would be available at N7 and N5. For the most part, these assumptions have been accurate with regards to N7, except for the expectation that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography would be widely available, which has turned out to be optimistic.

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  • 2019

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CMOS integrated power amplifiers for RF reconfigurable and digital transmitters

Description

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The three presented methodologies are listed below:

1) A transformer-based power combiner architecture for out-phasing transmitters

2) A current steering DAC-based average power tracking circuit for on-chip power amplifiers (PA)

3) A CMOS-based driver stage for GaN-based switched-mode power amplifiers applicable to fully digital transmitters

This thesis highlights the trends in wireless handsets, the motivates the need for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifier solutions and presents the three novel techniques for reconfigurable and digital CMOS-based PAs. Chapter 3, presents the transformer-based power combiner for out-phasing transmitters. The simulation results reveal that this technique is able to shrink the power combiner area, which is one of the largest parts of the transmitter, by about 50% and as a result, enhances the output power density by 3dB.

The average power tracking technique (APT) integrated with an on-chip CMOS-based power amplifier is explained in Chapter 4. This system is able to achieve up to 32dBm saturated output power with a linear power gain of 20dB in a 45nm CMOS SOI process. The maximum efficiency improvement is about ∆η=15% compared to the same PA without APT. Measurement results show that the proposed method is able to amplify an enhanced-EDGE modulated input signal with a data rate of 70.83kb/sec and generate more than 27dBm of average output power with EVM<5%.

Although small form factor, high battery lifetime, and high volume integration motivate the need for fully digital CMOS transmitters, the output power generated by this type of transmitter is not high enough to satisfy the communication standards. As a result, compound materials such as GaN or GaAs are usually being used in handset applications to increase the output power. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis and design of two CMOS based driver architectures (cascode and house of cards) for driving a GaN power amplifier. The presented results show that the drivers are able to generate ∆Vout=5V, which is required by the compound transistor, and operate up to 2GHz. Since the CMOS driver is expected to drive an off-chip capacitive load, the interface components, such as bond wires, and decoupling and pad capacitors, play a critical role in the output transient response. Therefore, extensive analysis and simulation results have been done on the interface circuits to investigate their effects on RF transmitter performance. The presented results show that the maximum operating frequency when the driver is connected to a 4pF capacitive load is about 2GHz, which is perfectly matched with the reported values in prior literature.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Multiscale Modeling of Thermal and Electrical Characteristics in Silicon CMOS Devices

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This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions

This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions for thermal transport allows for the study of complementary logic circuits with device level accuracy in electrical characteristics and thermal effects. The electrical model is comprised of an ensemble Monte Carlo solution to the Boltzmann Transport Equation coupled with an iterative solution to two-dimensional (2D) Poisson’s equation. The thermal model solves the energy balance equations accounting for carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon interactions. Modeling of circuit behavior uses parametric iteration to ensure current and voltage continuity. This allows for modeling of device behavior, analyzing circuit performance, and understanding thermal effects.

The coupled electro-thermal approach, initially developed for individual n-channel MOSFET (NMOS) devices, now allows multiple devices in tandem providing a platform for better comparison with heater-sensor experiments. The latest electro-thermal solver allows simulation of multiple NMOS and p-channel MOSFET (PMOS) devices, providing a platform for the study of complementary MOSFET (CMOS) circuit behavior. Modeling PMOS devices necessitates the inclusion of hole transport and hole-phonon interactions. The analysis of CMOS circuits uses the electro-thermal device simulation methodology alongside parametric iteration to ensure current continuity. Simulating a CMOS inverter and analyzing the extracted voltage transfer characteristics verifies the efficacy of this methodology. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the dual-carrier electro-thermal solver in simulating thermal effects in CMOS circuits.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Self resonant third harmonic mixer for 60 GHz transmitter

Description

ABSTRACT Ongoing research into wireless transceivers in the 60 GHz band is required to address the demand for high data rate communications systems at a frequency where signal propagation is

ABSTRACT Ongoing research into wireless transceivers in the 60 GHz band is required to address the demand for high data rate communications systems at a frequency where signal propagation is challenging even over short ranges. This thesis proposes a mixer architecture in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology that uses a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) operating at a fractional multiple of the desired output signal. The proposed topology is different from conventional subharmonic mixing in that the oscillator phase generation circuitry usually required for such a circuit is unnecessary. Analysis and simulations are performed on the proposed mixer circuit in an IBM 90 nm RF process on a 1.2 V supply. A typical RF transmitter system is considered in determining the block requirements needed for the mixer to meet the IEEE 802.11ad 60 GHz Draft Physical Layer Specification. The proposed circuit has a conversion loss of 21 dB at 60 GHz with a 5 dBm LO power at 20 GHz. Input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) is 2.93 dBm. The gain and linearity of the proposed mixer are sufficient for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation at 60 GHz with a transmitted data rate of over 4 Gbps.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Integrated CMOS-based low power electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for biomedical applications

Description

This thesis dissertation presents design of portable low power Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) system which can be used for biomedical applications such as tear diagnosis, blood diagnosis, or any other

This thesis dissertation presents design of portable low power Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) system which can be used for biomedical applications such as tear diagnosis, blood diagnosis, or any other body-fluid diagnosis. Two design methodologies are explained in this dissertation (a) a discrete component-based portable low-power EIS system and (b) an integrated CMOS-based portable low-power EIS system. Both EIS systems were tested in a laboratory environment and the characterization results are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the integrated EIS system relative to the discrete component-based EIS system are presented including experimental data. The specifications of both EIS systems are compared with commercially available non-portable EIS workstations. These designed EIS systems are handheld and very low-cost relative to the currently available commercial EIS workstations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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CMOS MESFET Cascode Amplifiers for RFIC Applications

Description

There is an ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth and data rate ensuing from exploding number of radio frequency integrated systems and devices. As stated in the Shannon-Hartley theorem, the maximum

There is an ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth and data rate ensuing from exploding number of radio frequency integrated systems and devices. As stated in the Shannon-Hartley theorem, the maximum achievable data rate of a communication channel is linearly proportional to the system bandwidth. This is the main driving force behind pushing wireless systems towards millimeter-wave frequency range, where larger bandwidth is available at a higher carrier frequency. Observing the Moor’s law, highly scaled complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technologies provide fast transistors with a high unity power gain frequency which enables operating at millimeter-wave frequency range. CMOS is the compelling choice for digital and signal processing modules which concurrently offers high computation speed, low power consumption, and mass integration at a high manufacturing yield. One of the main shortcomings of the sub-micron CMOS technologies is the low breakdown voltage of the transistors that limits the dynamic range of the radio frequency (RF) power blocks, especially with the power amplifiers. Low voltage swing restricts the achievable output power which translates into low signal to noise ratio and degraded linearity. Extensive research has been done on proposing new design and IC fabrication techniques with the goal of generating higher output power in CMOS technology. The prominent drawbacks of these solutions are an increased die area, higher cost per design, and lower overall efficiency due to lossy passive components. In this dissertation, CMOS compatible metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFETs) are utilized to put forward a new solution to enhance the power amplifier’s breakdown voltage, gain and maximum output power. Requiring no change to the conventional CMOS process flow, this low cost approach allows direct incorporation of high voltage power MESFETs into silicon. High voltage MESFETs were employed in a cascode structure to push the amplifier’s cutoff frequency and unity power gain frequency to the 5G and K-band frequency range. This dissertation begins with CMOS compatible MESFET modeling and fabrication steps, and culminates in the discussion of amplifier design and optimization methodology, parasitic de-embedding steps, simulation and measurement results, and high resistivity RF substrate characterization.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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A CMOS analog front-end IC for gas sensors

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This thesis presents a gas sensor readout IC for amperometric and conductometric electrochemical sensors. The Analog Front-End (AFE) readout circuit enables tracking long term exposure to hazardous gas fumes in

This thesis presents a gas sensor readout IC for amperometric and conductometric electrochemical sensors. The Analog Front-End (AFE) readout circuit enables tracking long term exposure to hazardous gas fumes in diesel and gasoline equipments, which may be correlated to diseases. Thus, the detection and discrimination of gases using microelectronic gas sensor system is required. This thesis describes the research, development, implementation and test of a small and portable based prototype platform for chemical gas sensors to enable a low-power and low noise gas detection system. The AFE reads out the outputs of eight conductometric sensor array and eight amperometric sensor arrays. The IC consists of a low noise potentiostat, and associated 9bit current-steering DAC for sensor stimulus, followed by the first order nested chopped £U£G ADC. The conductometric sensor uses a current driven approach for extracting conductance of the sensor depending on gas concentration. The amperometric sensor uses a potentiostat to apply constant voltage to the sensors and an I/V converter to measure current out of the sensor. The core area for the AFE is 2.65x0.95 mm2. The proposed system achieves 91 dB SNR at 1.32 mW quiescent power consumption per channel. With digital offset storage and nested chopping, the readout chain achieves 500 fÝV input referred offset.

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Date Created
  • 2011