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Parental Expectations and Future Pathways to Success

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Expectation for college attendance in the United States continues to rise as more jobs require degrees. This study aims to determine how parental expectations affect high school students in their decision to attend college. By examining parental expectations that were

Expectation for college attendance in the United States continues to rise as more jobs require degrees. This study aims to determine how parental expectations affect high school students in their decision to attend college. By examining parental expectations that were placed on current college students prior to and during the application period, we can determine the positive and negative outcomes of these expectations as well as the atmosphere they are creating. To test the hypothesis, an online survey was distributed to current ASU and Barrett, Honors College students regarding their experience with college applications and their parents' influence on their collegiate attendance. A qualitative analysis of the data was conducted in tandem with an analysis of several case studies to determine the results. These data show that parental expectations are having a significant impact on the enrollment of high school students in college programs. With parents placing these expectations on their children, collegiate enrollment will continue to increase. Further studies will be necessary to determine the specific influences these expectations are placing on students.

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2021-05

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Predicting children's academic achievement from parental aspirations, expectations, help with schoolwork, and home learning and language materials

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The present study examined the relations between indices of parental involvement (parental aspirations, expectations, help with schoolwork, home learning and language materials) and children's academic achievement in a sample of 291 kindergarten-2nd grade children. Children's academic achievement was assessed with

The present study examined the relations between indices of parental involvement (parental aspirations, expectations, help with schoolwork, home learning and language materials) and children's academic achievement in a sample of 291 kindergarten-2nd grade children. Children's academic achievement was assessed with the Woodcock Johnson and parents reported on expectations, aspirations, help with schoolwork, home learning and language materials. Latent Growth Curve Models were used to test whether there was growth in the parent involvement variables and whether growth in the parent involvement variables predicted growth in academic achievement. The intercept for parental expectations was the only intercept to predict the intercept of academic achievement. Rates of growth in parental expectations, parental help with schoolwork, and home learning materials predicted rates of growth in academic achievement.

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Date Created
2012

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Contributions of children's or teachers' effortful control to academic functioning in early schooling

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I examined the role of children's or teacher's effortful control (EC) in children's academic functioning in early elementary school in two separate studies. In Study 1, I tested longitudinal relations between parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions in

I examined the role of children's or teacher's effortful control (EC) in children's academic functioning in early elementary school in two separate studies. In Study 1, I tested longitudinal relations between parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions in kindergarten, children's EC in first grade, and children's reading or math achievement in second grade (N = 291). In the fall of each school year, parents reported their positive or negative reactions and parents and teachers reported on children's EC. Standardized achievement tests assessed achievement each spring. Results from autoregressive panel mediation models demonstrated that constructs exhibited consistency across study years. In addition, first-grade EC mediated relations between parents' reactions (i.e., a difference composite of positive minus negative reactions) at kindergarten and second-grade math, but not reading, achievement. Findings suggest that one method of promoting math achievement in early school is through the socialization of children's EC. In Study 2, I examined relations between teachers' EC, teachers' reactions to children's negative emotions, the student-teacher relationship (STR), and children's externalizing behaviors or achievement among 289 second-graders and their 116 teachers. Results from mixed-model regressions showed that negative reactions and teacher-reported STR mediated relations between teachers' EC and math achievement. In addition, teacher-reported STR mediated links between teachers' EC and externalizing problems across reporters and between teachers' EC and reading achievement. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that a high-quality STR was negatively associated with externalizing problems and high levels of teachers' negative reactions were negatively related to math achievement only for students low in EC. In tests of moderation by social competence, teachers' reports of high-quality STRs tended to be negatively associated with externalizing problems, but relations were strongest for students not high in social competence. For students low in social competence only, children's reports of a high-quality STR was related to lower reading achievement. These results highlight the utility of considering whether and how teachers' own intrinsic characteristics influence classroom dynamics and students' academic functioning outcomes.

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Date Created
2011

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Predicting academic competence in elementary school from children's early temperamental approach reactivity and effortful control

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Researchers who have previously explored the relation of broad-based temperamental approach constructs, such as surgency/extraversion, exuberance, or behavioral approach sensitivity, to academic competence (AC) in early elementary school have often found conflicting results. Moreover, few researchers have examined the interaction

Researchers who have previously explored the relation of broad-based temperamental approach constructs, such as surgency/extraversion, exuberance, or behavioral approach sensitivity, to academic competence (AC) in early elementary school have often found conflicting results. Moreover, few researchers have examined the interaction between these approach reactivity constructs and effortful control (EC) in the prediction of AC. The goal of the current study was to examine the fine-tuned relations of different aspects of temperamental approach reactivity in early childhood (42 and 54 months; N=223), such as impulsivity, frustration, and positive affect, as well as EC, to AC during early elementary school (72 and 84 months). Examining the complex relations may clarify the literature using broad-based approach reactivity constructs. Temperament was observed in the laboratory when children were 54 months of age. Mothers and caregivers also reported on children's impulsivity at 42 and 54 months. School-related behavioral adjustment was reported by children, mothers, and teachers, and GPA was reported by teachers at 72 and 84 months. The results of the study indicated that positive affect, EC, and receptive language ability were the only unique direct predictors of school adjustment and/or GPA. Without EC in the model, only positive affect and vocabulary predicted AC. Frustration, positive affect, and impulsivity each interacted with EC to predict AC outcomes, such EC was only related to higher AC for children with high impulsivity or anger, or low positive affect. Additionally, positive affect and impulsivity interacted to predict GPA, such that impulsivity was positively related to GPA for children with high positive affect, but it was negatively, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with GPA for children with low positive affect. These results were found to be similar for boys and girls. Finding are discussed in terms of the developmental importance of early EC for academic competence for children who have high approach reactivity, as well as the interactive effects of dimensions of approach reactivity on academic achievement.

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Date Created
2014

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The role of sleep during the transition to kindergarten and early academic achievement

Description

The present study tested 1) whether children’s bedtimes, wake times, and sleep

durations change as they transition into kindergarten (TtoK), 2) if changes to children’s

sleep schedules were contingent on their pre-kindergarten (T1) napping status and if T1

bedtimes were related to fall

The present study tested 1) whether children’s bedtimes, wake times, and sleep

durations change as they transition into kindergarten (TtoK), 2) if changes to children’s

sleep schedules were contingent on their pre-kindergarten (T1) napping status and if T1

bedtimes were related to fall (T2) and spring (T3) bedtimes and durations, and 3) whether

T1 sleep, changes to sleep from T1 to T2, and concurrent sleep quality were related to

academic achievement and participation in 51 kindergarteners. It was hypothesized that

1) wake times would be earlier and sleep duration would be shorter during kindergarten

(T2 and T3) than at T1, 2) children who napped at T1 would go to bed later and have

shorter sleep duration than their non-napping peers and T1 bedtimes would be positively

associated with T2 and T3 bedtimes and negatively associated with T2 and T3 durations,

and 3) more optimal sleep (e.g., consolidated, consistent, and high quality) would be

positively related to academic achievement and participation. Parents reported on

children’s bedtimes, wake times, and nap lengths during T1, T2, and T3. During T3

children wore actigraphs for five consecutive school nights and completed the Woodcock

Johnson tests of achievement (WJ-III). Teachers also reported on children’s participation

in the classroom during T3. Results demonstrated that bedtimes and wake times were

earlier at T2 and T3 than T1. Duration was shorter at T2 and T3 than T1. Additionally,

napping was unrelated to bedtimes and durations, but T1 bedtime was positively related

to T2 and T3 bedtimes and negatively related to T2 and T3 durations. Finally, T1 nap

length, change in bedtimes, and Actigraphy duration were negatively related to

participation. Actigraphy onset variability was positively related to participation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015