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Parental Expectations and Future Pathways to Success

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Expectation for college attendance in the United States continues to rise as more jobs require degrees. This study aims to determine how parental expectations affect high school students in their decision to attend college. By examining parental expectations that were

Expectation for college attendance in the United States continues to rise as more jobs require degrees. This study aims to determine how parental expectations affect high school students in their decision to attend college. By examining parental expectations that were placed on current college students prior to and during the application period, we can determine the positive and negative outcomes of these expectations as well as the atmosphere they are creating. To test the hypothesis, an online survey was distributed to current ASU and Barrett, Honors College students regarding their experience with college applications and their parents' influence on their collegiate attendance. A qualitative analysis of the data was conducted in tandem with an analysis of several case studies to determine the results. These data show that parental expectations are having a significant impact on the enrollment of high school students in college programs. With parents placing these expectations on their children, collegiate enrollment will continue to increase. Further studies will be necessary to determine the specific influences these expectations are placing on students.

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2021-05

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Predicting academic competence in elementary school from children's early temperamental approach reactivity and effortful control

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Researchers who have previously explored the relation of broad-based temperamental approach constructs, such as surgency/extraversion, exuberance, or behavioral approach sensitivity, to academic competence (AC) in early elementary school have often found conflicting results. Moreover, few researchers have examined the interaction

Researchers who have previously explored the relation of broad-based temperamental approach constructs, such as surgency/extraversion, exuberance, or behavioral approach sensitivity, to academic competence (AC) in early elementary school have often found conflicting results. Moreover, few researchers have examined the interaction between these approach reactivity constructs and effortful control (EC) in the prediction of AC. The goal of the current study was to examine the fine-tuned relations of different aspects of temperamental approach reactivity in early childhood (42 and 54 months; N=223), such as impulsivity, frustration, and positive affect, as well as EC, to AC during early elementary school (72 and 84 months). Examining the complex relations may clarify the literature using broad-based approach reactivity constructs. Temperament was observed in the laboratory when children were 54 months of age. Mothers and caregivers also reported on children's impulsivity at 42 and 54 months. School-related behavioral adjustment was reported by children, mothers, and teachers, and GPA was reported by teachers at 72 and 84 months. The results of the study indicated that positive affect, EC, and receptive language ability were the only unique direct predictors of school adjustment and/or GPA. Without EC in the model, only positive affect and vocabulary predicted AC. Frustration, positive affect, and impulsivity each interacted with EC to predict AC outcomes, such EC was only related to higher AC for children with high impulsivity or anger, or low positive affect. Additionally, positive affect and impulsivity interacted to predict GPA, such that impulsivity was positively related to GPA for children with high positive affect, but it was negatively, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with GPA for children with low positive affect. These results were found to be similar for boys and girls. Finding are discussed in terms of the developmental importance of early EC for academic competence for children who have high approach reactivity, as well as the interactive effects of dimensions of approach reactivity on academic achievement.

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Date Created
2014

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The role of sleep during the transition to kindergarten and early academic achievement

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The present study tested 1) whether children’s bedtimes, wake times, and sleep

durations change as they transition into kindergarten (TtoK), 2) if changes to children’s

sleep schedules were contingent on their pre-kindergarten (T1) napping status and if T1

bedtimes were related to fall

The present study tested 1) whether children’s bedtimes, wake times, and sleep

durations change as they transition into kindergarten (TtoK), 2) if changes to children’s

sleep schedules were contingent on their pre-kindergarten (T1) napping status and if T1

bedtimes were related to fall (T2) and spring (T3) bedtimes and durations, and 3) whether

T1 sleep, changes to sleep from T1 to T2, and concurrent sleep quality were related to

academic achievement and participation in 51 kindergarteners. It was hypothesized that

1) wake times would be earlier and sleep duration would be shorter during kindergarten

(T2 and T3) than at T1, 2) children who napped at T1 would go to bed later and have

shorter sleep duration than their non-napping peers and T1 bedtimes would be positively

associated with T2 and T3 bedtimes and negatively associated with T2 and T3 durations,

and 3) more optimal sleep (e.g., consolidated, consistent, and high quality) would be

positively related to academic achievement and participation. Parents reported on

children’s bedtimes, wake times, and nap lengths during T1, T2, and T3. During T3

children wore actigraphs for five consecutive school nights and completed the Woodcock

Johnson tests of achievement (WJ-III). Teachers also reported on children’s participation

in the classroom during T3. Results demonstrated that bedtimes and wake times were

earlier at T2 and T3 than T1. Duration was shorter at T2 and T3 than T1. Additionally,

napping was unrelated to bedtimes and durations, but T1 bedtime was positively related

to T2 and T3 bedtimes and negatively related to T2 and T3 durations. Finally, T1 nap

length, change in bedtimes, and Actigraphy duration were negatively related to

participation. Actigraphy onset variability was positively related to participation.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Situational Shyness among Chinese Adolescents: Measurement and Associations with Adjustment

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Although researchers often conceptualize shyness as stable across different situations (e.g., Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009), evidence has suggested that shyness may consist of situation-specific components (e.g., Asendorpf, 1990a; 1990b; Gazelle & Faldowski, 2014; Xu & Farver, 2009). This study

Although researchers often conceptualize shyness as stable across different situations (e.g., Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009), evidence has suggested that shyness may consist of situation-specific components (e.g., Asendorpf, 1990a; 1990b; Gazelle & Faldowski, 2014; Xu & Farver, 2009). This study was aimed at developing a systematic measurement tool for situational shyness in adolescence, as well as examining the relations between situational shyness and other popular measures of shyness and between situational shyness and adjustment. A sample of Chinese adolescents (N = 492) from an urban school participated in the study during 7th (T1) and 8th (T2) grades. Adolescents self-reported their situational shyness using a new measure of hypothetical scenarios, as well as their general shyness, anxious shyness, regulated shyness, depressive symptoms, and loneliness. Peers reported adolescents’ general and conflicted shyness, and popularity and peer rejection. The school provided records of their academic achievement (exam scores).

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the situational shyness measure consistently supported that shyness in the hypothetical scenarios can be separated into three components: shyness with familiar peers, shyness with unfamiliar peers, and shyness in formal situations. These components had differential associations with other measures of shyness. Self-reported general and anxious shyness were related consistently to shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations, and occasionally to shyness with familiar peers. Self-reported regulated shyness was not related to self-reported shyness in any situation. Peer-reported conflicted shyness was associated with shyness with familiar and unfamiliar peers, whereas peer-reported general shyness was associated with shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations. Moreover, situational shyness showed differential relations to maladjustment. Shyness with familiar peers was associated positively with maladjustment in multiple domains, especially academic and peer difficulties. Shyness with unfamiliar peers and shyness in formal situations, in contrast, were associated primarily with internalizing problems. In addition, shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations occasionally related to positive adjustment, suggesting shyness in specific situations may still be protective in contemporary urban China. The findings provided new evidence that the correlates of shyness depend on the situation in which shyness occurs, and may inform future intervention programs.

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Created

Date Created
2019