Matching Items (7)

Biomimetic Actuators with Coiled Shape Memory Alloy Technology

Description

This project aims to use the shape memory alloy nitinol as the basis for a biomimetic actuator. These actuators are designed to mimic the behavior of organic muscles for use

This project aims to use the shape memory alloy nitinol as the basis for a biomimetic actuator. These actuators are designed to mimic the behavior of organic muscles for use in prosthetic and robotic devices. Actuator characterization included in the project examines the force output,electrical properties, and other variables relevant to actuator design.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Precision pointing in space using arrays of shape memory based linear actuators

Description

Space systems such as communication satellites, earth observation satellites and telescope require accurate pointing to observe fixed targets over prolonged time. These systems typically use reaction wheels to slew the

Space systems such as communication satellites, earth observation satellites and telescope require accurate pointing to observe fixed targets over prolonged time. These systems typically use reaction wheels to slew the spacecraft and gimballing systems containing motors to achieve precise pointing. Motor based actuators have limited life as they contain moving parts that require lubrication in space. Alternate methods have utilized piezoelectric actuators. This paper presents Shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators for control of a deployable antenna placed on a satellite. The SMAs are operated as a series of distributed linear actuators. These distributed linear actuators are not prone to single point failures and although each individual actuator is imprecise due to hysteresis and temperature variation, the system as a whole achieves reliable results. The SMAs can be programmed to perform a series of periodic motion and operate as a mechanical guidance system that is not prone to damage from radiation or space weather. Efforts are focused on developing a system that can achieve 1 degree pointing accuracy at first, with an ultimate goal of achieving a few arc seconds accuracy. Bench top model of the actuator system has been developed and working towards testing the system under vacuum. A demonstration flight of the technology is planned aboard a CubeSat.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Nonlinear geometric response of structure with piezoelectric actuator by reduced order modeling using a temperature analogy

Description

The focus of this investigation is on the formulation and a validation of reduced order models (ROMs) for the prediction of the response of structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators. The

The focus of this investigation is on the formulation and a validation of reduced order models (ROMs) for the prediction of the response of structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators. The ROMs considered here are those constructed in a nonintrusive manner from a commercial finite element software, NASTRAN is adopted here. Notwithstanding the popularity of piezoelectric materials in structural dynamics related applications such as structural health monitoring and energy harvesting, not all commercial finite element software allow directly their modeling. In such cases, e.g., with NASTRAN, one can proceed with an analogy and replace the electric actuation in the piezoelectric material by a fictitious thermal effect producing the same strain. This process recasts the determination of a ROM for a structure with embedded piezoelectric actuator into a similar ROM but for a heated structure, the framework of which has recently been developed. Yet, the temperature field resulting from the analogy would be quite different from the one considered in past effort and would excite a broad array of structural modes. Accordingly, as a preamble to considering a beam with a piezoelectric layer, a simpler plate model is considered that is subjected to a uniform temperature but a complex pressure loading that excites the entire set of modes of the plate in the broad frequency band considered. The very good match of the predictions obtained by this ROM in comparison to their full finite element counterparts provides the necessary confidence to next address a beam with embedded piezoelectic actuator. The test model considered for this validation is a built-up nano beam analyzed recently in nonlinear geometric conditions by full finite elements and by a non-intrusive ROM procedure under harmonic variations of the piezoelectic voltage. This structural model and its loading conditions are very different from those considered in past applications of nonintrusive ROMs, thus the excellent results obtained here provide further support of the broad generality of the nonintrusive ROM methodology, including of the appropriateness of the "dual modes" basis functions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Optimal design methods for increasing power performance of multiactuator robotic limbs

Description

In order for assistive mobile robots to operate in the same environment as humans, they must be able to navigate the same obstacles as humans do. Many elements are required

In order for assistive mobile robots to operate in the same environment as humans, they must be able to navigate the same obstacles as humans do. Many elements are required to do this: a powerful controller which can understand the obstacle, and power-dense actuators which will be able to achieve the necessary limb accelerations and output energies. Rapid growth in information technology has made complex controllers, and the devices which run them considerably light and cheap. The energy density of batteries, motors, and engines has not grown nearly as fast. This is problematic because biological systems are more agile, and more efficient than robotic systems. This dissertation introduces design methods which may be used optimize a multiactuator robotic limb's natural dynamics in an effort to reduce energy waste. These energy savings decrease the robot's cost of transport, and the weight of the required fuel storage system. To achieve this, an optimal design method, which allows the specialization of robot geometry, is introduced. In addition to optimal geometry design, a gearing optimization is presented which selects a gear ratio which minimizes the electrical power at the motor while considering the constraints of the motor. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for the optimization of parallel stiffness elements in the robot is introduced. In addition to the optimal design tools introduced, the KiTy SP robotic limb structure is also presented. Which is a novel hybrid parallel-serial actuation method. This novel leg structure has many desirable attributes such as: three dimensional end-effector positioning, low mobile mass, compact form-factor, and a large workspace. We also show that the KiTy SP structure outperforms the classical, biologically-inspired serial limb structure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Fused Filament Fabrication of Prosthetic Components for Trans-Humeral Upper Limb Prosthetics

Description

Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a

Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a thermoplastic osseointegrated upper limb prosthesis for average adult trans-humeral amputation with mechanical properties greater than upper limb skeletal bone. The prosthetic designed has: a one-step surgical process, large cavities for bone tissue ingrowth, uses a material that has an elastic modulus less than skeletal bone, and can be fabricated on one system.

FFF osseointegration screw is an improvement upon the current two-part osseointegrated prosthetics that are composed of a fixture and abutment. The current prosthetic design requires two invasive surgeries for implantation and are made of titanium, which has an elastic modulus greater than bone. An elastic modulus greater than bone causes stress shielding and overtime can cause loosening of the prosthetic.

The tactile sensor is a thermoplastic piezo-resistive sensor for daily activities for a prosthetic’s feedback system. The tactile sensor is manufactured from a low elastic modulus composite comprising of a compressible thermoplastic elastomer and conductive carbon. Carbon is in graphite form and added in high filler ratios. The printed sensors were compared to sensors that were fabricated in a gravity mold to highlight the difference in FFF sensors to molded sensors. The 3D printed tactile sensor has a thickness and feel similar to human skin, has a simple fabrication technique, can detect forces needed for daily activities, and can be manufactured in to user specific geometries.

Lastly, a biomimicking skeletal muscle actuator for prosthetics was developed. The actuator developed is manufactured with Fuse Filament Fabrication using a shape memory polymer composite that has non-linear contractile and passive forces, contractile forces and strains comparable to mammalian skeletal muscle, reaction time under one second, low operating temperature, and has a low mass, volume, and material costs. The actuator improves upon current prosthetic actuators that provide rigid, linear force with high weight, cost, and noise.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Carbon nanomaterials for energy storage, actuators and environmental applications

Description

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for carbon nanomaterials and investigate their properties for different applications. In this work, carbon nanospheres (CNSs), carbon foams (CF), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were studied for various applications, including water treatment, energy storage, actuators, and sensors.

A facile spray pyrolysis synthesis technique was developed to synthesize individual CNSs with specific surface area (SSA) up to 1106 m2/g. The hollow CNSs showed adsorption of up to 300 mg rhodamine B dye per gram carbon, which is more than 15 times higher than that observed for conventional carbon black. They were also evaluated as adsorbents for removal of arsenate and selenate from water and displayed good binding to both species, outperforming commercial activated carbons for arsenate removal in pH > 8. When evaluated as supercapacitor electrode materials, specific capacitances of up to 112 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g were observed. When used as Li-ion battery anode materials, the CNSs achieved a discharge capacity of 270 mAh/g at a current density of 372 mA/g (1C), which is 4-fold higher than that of commercial graphite anode.

Carbon foams were synthesized using direct pyrolysis and had SSA up to 2340 m2/g. When used as supercapacitor electrode materials, a specific capacitance up to 280 F/g was achieved at current density of 0.1 A/g and remained as high as 207 F/g, even at a high current density of 10 A/g.

A printed walking robot was made from common plastic films and coatings of SWNTs. The solid-state thermal bimorph actuators were multifunctional energy transducers powered by heat, light, or electricity. The actuators were also investigated for photo/thermal detection. Electrochemical actuators based on MnO2 were also studied for potential underwater applications.

SWNTs were also used to fabricate printable electrodes for trace Cr(VI) detection, which displayed sensitivity up to 500 nA/ppb for Cr(VI). The limit of detection was shown to be as low as 5 ppb. A flow detection system based on CNT/printed electrodes was also demonstrated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Computational Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Pneumatically Driven Actuators for the Development of a Soft Robotic Arm

Description

Soft Poly-Limb (SPL) is a pneumatically driven, wearable, soft continuum robotic arm designed to aid humans with medical conditions, such as cerebral palsy, paraplegia, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, perform activities of

Soft Poly-Limb (SPL) is a pneumatically driven, wearable, soft continuum robotic arm designed to aid humans with medical conditions, such as cerebral palsy, paraplegia, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, perform activities of daily living. To support user's tasks, the SPL acts as an additional limb extending from the human body which can be controlled to perform safe and compliant mobile manipulation in three-dimensional space. The SPL is inspired by invertebrate limbs, such as the elephant trunk and the arms of the octopus. In this work, various geometrical and physical parameters of the SPL are identified, and behavior of the actuators that comprise it are studied by varying their parameters through novel quasi-static computational models. As a result, this study provides a set of engineering design rules to create soft actuators for continuum soft robotic arms by understanding how varying parameters affect the actuator's motion as a function of the input pressure. A prototype of the SPL is fabricated to analyze the accuracy of these computational models by performing linear expansion, bending and arbitrary pose tests. Furthermore, combinations of the parameters based on the application of the SPL are determined to affect the weight, payload capacity, and stiffness of the arm. Experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed computational models and help in understanding the behavior of soft compliant actuators. Finally, based on the set functional requirements for the assistance of impaired users, results show the effectiveness of the SPL in performing tasks for activities of daily living.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018