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Endurance limit for HMA based on healing phenomenon using viscoelastic continuum damage analysis

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Perpetual Pavements, if properly designed and rehabilitated, it can last longer than 50 years without major structural rehabilitation. Fatigue endurance limit is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to mitigate bottom-up fatigue cracking. The endurance limit has not been

Perpetual Pavements, if properly designed and rehabilitated, it can last longer than 50 years without major structural rehabilitation. Fatigue endurance limit is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to mitigate bottom-up fatigue cracking. The endurance limit has not been implemented in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide software, currently known as DARWin-ME. This study was conducted as part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 9-44A to develop a framework and mathematical methodology to determine the fatigue endurance limit using the uniaxial fatigue test. In this procedure, the endurance limit is defined as the allowable tensile strains at which a balance takes place between the fatigue damage during loading, and the healing during the rest periods between loading pulses. The viscoelastic continuum damage model was used to isolate time dependent damage and healing in hot mix asphalt from that due to fatigue. This study also included the development of a uniaxial fatigue test method and the associated data acquisition computer programs to conduct the test with and without rest period. Five factors that affect the fatigue and healing behavior of asphalt mixtures were evaluated: asphalt content, air voids, temperature, rest period and tensile strain. Based on the test results, two Pseudo Stiffness Ratio (PSR) regression models were developed. In the first model, the PSR was a function of the five factors and the number of loading cycles. In the second model, air voids, asphalt content, and temperature were replaced by the initial stiffness of the mix. In both models, the endurance limit was defined when PSR is equal to 1.0 (net damage is equal to zero). The results of the first model were compared to the results of a stiffness ratio model developed based on a parallel study using beam fatigue test (part of the same NCHRP 9-44A). The endurance limit values determined from uniaxial and beam fatigue tests showed very good correlation. A methodology was described on how to incorporate the second PSR model into fatigue analysis and damage using the DARWin-ME software. This would provide an effective and efficient methodology to design perpetual flexible pavements.

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Date Created
2012

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Pavement temperature effects on overall urban heat island

Description

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of land surface and the use of materials such as concrete

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of land surface and the use of materials such as concrete and/or asphalt are the main factors influencing the surface energy balance and therefore the environmental temperature in the urban areas. Engineered materials have relatively higher solar energy absorption and tend to trap a relatively higher incoming solar radiation. They also possess a higher heat storage capacity that allows them to retain heat during the day and then slowly release it back into the atmosphere as the sun goes down. This phenomenon is known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and causes an increase in the urban air temperature. Many researchers believe that albedo is the key pavement affecting the urban heat island. However, this research has shown that the problem is more complex and that solar reflectivity may not be the only important factor to evaluate the ability of a pavement to mitigate UHI. The main objective of this study was to analyze and research the influence of pavement materials on the near surface air temperature. In order to accomplish this effort, test sections consisting of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), Porous Hot Mix asphalt (PHMA), Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), Pervious Portland Cement Concrete (PPCC), artificial turf, and landscape gravels were constructed in the Phoenix, Arizona area. Air temperature, albedo, wind speed, solar radiation, and wind direction were recorded, analyzed and compared above each pavement material type. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the air temperature at 3-feet and above, regardless of the type of the pavement. Near surface pavement temperatures were also measured and modeled. The results indicated that for the UHI analysis, it is important to consider the interaction between pavement structure, material properties, and environmental factors. Overall, this study demonstrated the complexity of evaluating pavement structures for UHI mitigation; it provided great insight on the effects of material types and properties on surface temperatures and near surface air temperature.

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Date Created
2013

A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

Description

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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Date Created
2017

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Utilization of thermoplastic mounting studs for simple performance testing on hot mix asphalt

Description

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.

Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.

A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.

The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.

The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.

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Date Created
2018

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Implications of Bio-modification on Moisture Damage Mechanisms in Asphalt Binder Matrix

Description

Bio-modification of asphalt binder brings significant benefits in terms of increasing sustainable and environmental practices, stabilizing prices, and decreasing costs. However, bio-modified asphalt binders have shown varying performance regarding susceptibility to moisture damage; some bio-oil modifiers significantly increase asphalt binder's

Bio-modification of asphalt binder brings significant benefits in terms of increasing sustainable and environmental practices, stabilizing prices, and decreasing costs. However, bio-modified asphalt binders have shown varying performance regarding susceptibility to moisture damage; some bio-oil modifiers significantly increase asphalt binder's susceptibility to moisture damage. This variability in performance is largely due to the large number of bio-masses available for use as sources of bio-oil, as well as the type of processing procedure followed in converting the bio-mass into a bio-oil for modifying asphalt binder. Therefore, there is a need for a method of properly evaluating the potential impact of a bio-oil modifier for asphalt binder on the overall performance of asphalt pavement, in order to properly distinguish whether a particular bio-oil modifier increases or decreases the moisture susceptibility of asphalt binder. Therefore, the goal of this study is a multi-scale investigation of bio-oils with known chemical compositions to determine if there is a correlation between a fundamental property of a bio-oil and the resulting increase or decrease in moisture susceptibility of a binder when it is modified with the bio-oil. For instance, it was found that polarizability of asphalt constituents can be a promising indicator of moisture susceptibility of bitumen. This study will also evaluate the linkage of the fundamental property to newly developed binder-level test methods. It was found that moisture-induced shear thinning of bitumen containing glass beads can differentiate moisture susceptible bitumen samples. Based on the knowledge determined, alternative methods of reducing the moisture susceptibility of asphalt pavement will also be evaluated. It was shown that accumulation of acidic compounds at the interface of bitumen and aggregate could promote moisture damage. It was further found that detracting acidic compounds from the interface could be done by either of neutralizing active site of stone aggregate to reduce affinity for acids or by arresting acidic compounds using active mineral filler. The study results showed there is a strong relation between composition of bitumen and its susceptibility to moisture. This in turn emphasize the importance of integrating knowledge of surface chemistry and bitumen composition into the pavement design and evaluation.

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Date Created
2020

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Surface Activation of Rubber to Enhance the Durability and Chemo-Mechanics of Asphalt

Description

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance, reducing noise, higher rutting resistance and longevity. However, due to

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance, reducing noise, higher rutting resistance and longevity. However, due to the vulcanization, the polymeric crosslinked structure of crumb rubber suffers from inadequate dispersion and incompatibility in bitumen where storage stability becomes an issue. To solve this problem, partial surface devulcanization of the rubber via chemical and microbial surface activation was examined in this study showing both method can be effective to enhance rubber-bitumen interactions and subsequently storage stability of the rubberized bitumen. To ensure proper surface activation, it is important to thoroughly understand chemo-mechanics of bitumen containing rubber particles as well as underlying interaction mechanism at the molecular level. Therefore, this study integrates a multi-scale approach using density functional theory based computational modeling and laboratory experiments to provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between surface activated rubber and bitumen. To do so, efficacy of various bio-modifiers was examined and compared it terms of both surface activation capability and durability of resulting rubberized bitumen. It was found that biomodifiers with various compositions can have either synergistic or antagonistic effect onchemo-mechanics of rubberized bitumen. The study was further extended to study the interplay of Polyphosphoric Acid (PPA) and these biomodified rubberized bitumens showing not all modifiers have high synergy with PPA in bitumens. Finally, durability of rubberized bitumen was studied in terms of its resistance to Ultraviolet (UV) aging. It was shown that there is a strong relation between composition of biomodified rubberized bitumen and its resistance to UV-aging.

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Date Created
2020