Matching Items (12)

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Integrating Social Skills Training in a Therapeutic Recreation Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Description

Research regarding social skills training techniques for youth with autism spectrum disorders does not generally include implementation in anywhere but clinical, highly structured settings. However, leisure and recreation settings are

Research regarding social skills training techniques for youth with autism spectrum disorders does not generally include implementation in anywhere but clinical, highly structured settings. However, leisure and recreation settings are conducive to promoting social skills improvement due to assets such as typical peer groups, engaging play activities, and significant opportunities for incidental learning. This program was designed for this particular population and integrated in to the daily schedule of a six-week long therapeutic recreation summer day camp for adolescents with disabilities ages 13-18. A standardized assessment, the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS) evaluates various areas of social ability and was utilized to measure changes specifically in peer interaction skills of participants with autism. Results discovered that this design can complement the aims of the camp and contribute to social enrichment and inclusion; every subject showed positive gains in the peer relations subscale at a much higher rate than in any other area of social ability. Multiple recognizable patterns emerged that can be evaluated in future studies, including greater average improvements for females, those ages 16-18 and those with an Asperger's diagnosis. Replication of this program could quantify and confirm the effectiveness of social skills training within recreation, which would require controlling for the additional treatment of a therapeutic summer camp. However, this observational case study demonstrates a promising future regarding improving the efficiency and value of therapeutic recreation services for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Operation Recreation: Enhancing Program Delivery to Boy Scouts

Description

This Honors Thesis evaluates a recreation program entitled Operation Recreation that was implemented at Camp Raymond, a Boy Scout Camp in Northern Arizona. The mission of Operation Recreation is to

This Honors Thesis evaluates a recreation program entitled Operation Recreation that was implemented at Camp Raymond, a Boy Scout Camp in Northern Arizona. The mission of Operation Recreation is to enhance each Scout's knowledge and passion for the Scouting Ideals, Patrol, and Personal Growth Methods of Scouting. Data were collected to evaluate Operation Recreation and measure whether the two program goals were met. The program development cycle was used to design Operation Recreation to meet the unique programming needs of Camp Raymond. Operation Recreation is a week-long recreation program that gives Scouts the opportunity to participate in activities that develop their knowledge of the Scouting Ideals, encourage an increase in engagement of the personal growth method, and create a time devoted to practicing the patrol method. Analysis of evaluation results was conducted and suggestions for modifications are made.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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TRAIL RUNNERS AND SAFETY: EXPLORING PERCEPTIONS OF RISK IN AN URBAN PARK SYSTEM OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST

Description

Issues of visitor safety are a concern among park and recreation managers. As urban parks receive a variety of user groups, understanding perceptions of safety among specific groups becomes pertinent

Issues of visitor safety are a concern among park and recreation managers. As urban parks receive a variety of user groups, understanding perceptions of safety among specific groups becomes pertinent when managing for optimal experiences. This study examines trails runners at two mountain parks in a large southwestern city. Data was collected in the fall of 2013 and the spring of 2014 using a five page, onsite, self-administered, exit survey in English. Questions addressed trail runner demographics, level of trail running experience, perceptions of safety, and support for safety related management actions. Of specific interest was how perceptions of safety varied by trail runner demographics and level of experience. 102 trail runners participated in the study. Data analysis was completed using an independent samples t-test to compare sample characteristics with perceptions of safety and safety related management actions. The results include mixed opposition and support for specific preventive management actions. Few significant differences in responses were found between gender, age and specialization. The findings also suggest trail runners primarily learned about these recreation areas through local knowledge and "word of mouth" and not through managers. Further implications of these finding is discussed. Contributions of the study are twofold. First, results provide managers with information regarding trail runners at the parks. Second, findings serve to extend the literature on visitor safety at park and recreation settings in urban areas.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Sub-par attributions: why women give up golf

Description

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a practice session at a public golf facility. Attributions can be adaptive or maladaptive after a performance and can influence subsequent motivation to engage in a similar task again. It was hypothesized that male and female golfers would make significantly different attributions for their performance and that female golfers' attributions would be maladaptive. As the attrition rate for female golfers is highest in the first five years, it is also hypothesized that women's attributions will become more adaptive over time and that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived level of success. A survey was used to measure golfers' attributions and general questions provided data for the number of years playing golf and gender. The subscales in the attribution survey were internal control, external control and stability. Attributions are adaptive or maladaptive depending on the level of perceived success, so success of the practice performance was collected. The hypothesis that recreational female golfers make significantly different attributions than recreational male golfers was supported only by the external control sub-scale. Female golfers perceived their performance as significantly less successful than male golfers. Considering this perception of success, women golfers' attributions were maladaptive. The hypothesis that women golfers' attributions become more adaptive over time was supported. Time playing golf predicted a significant amount of variance for internal attributions of female golfers. However, the hypothesis that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived success was not supported.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Understanding Motivations for Participation in Adaptive Sports

Description

Participation in competitive sports by athletes who are physically disabled has increased dramatically in recent decades. Given this growth in participation, sports for disabled athletes represents a worthy area of

Participation in competitive sports by athletes who are physically disabled has increased dramatically in recent decades. Given this growth in participation, sports for disabled athletes represents a worthy area of exploration. The purpose of this research is to further understand what motivates people and athletes with physical impairments to partake in adaptive recreation and sport. This study will explore motivations for participation in adaptive sport within theoretical lenses of Achievement Goal Theory (AGT), Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and the Five-Factor Model by Omar-Fauzee and colleagues (2010). In addition, this study examined the relationship between motives with sense of community and life satisfaction. Seventy-one participants completed the online survey regarding the questions of interest. In order to determine if different motivations or achievement goals predicted sense of community, life satisfaction and psychological well-being, five regression models were tested. Descriptive statistics were utilized to assess the strongest motivators. Within the five-factor model, interest represented the strongest motivator followed by competency. Within the SDT framework, relatedness emerged as the strongest motivation factor. When AGT was tested, individuals with disabilities were found to be more task-oriented then ego-oriented. This indicates that people that participate in adaptive athletics value social connections, sense of freedom and developing their knowledge for sport-specific activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Bonding over the love of soccer is no joke: a mixed method study exploring sense of community, resilience, and cultural adjustment for refugee youth participants

Description

Resettled refugees face numerous challenges including unsafe living conditions, loss of permanent shelter, adjustment to a new culture, loneliness, and separation from family, friends, and community. Of particular importance is

Resettled refugees face numerous challenges including unsafe living conditions, loss of permanent shelter, adjustment to a new culture, loneliness, and separation from family, friends, and community. Of particular importance is the lack of a feeling of sense of community (SOC) within their new surroundings. SOC is not only worthwhile as an outcome of its own, but may also predict additional positive outcomes such as resilience and cultural adjustment. Literature has shown participation in sport can develop youth positively and build social skills, while studies in other regions of the world have also found a sport team setting to be a place for immigrants to experience SOC. In this study, I use a congruent mixed methods approach to both explore the experience of SOC for youth refugees in a soccer club, and examine the relation of SOC to resilience and cultural adjustment. Using photo-elicitation and semi-structured interviews with 11 youth participants, the qualitative portion of the study explored SOC among youth participants. Findings note the presence of SOC as matched to theoretical frameworks both specific to sport, and to a more general theory of SOC. Further data were collected through questionnaires distributed to club members. Results from the quantitative analysis indicate a significant positive relation between SOC and resilience, and SOC and perceived acculturation. This study’s contribution is to illustrate how refugee youth in a sport club in the United States experience SOC, and the impact of that SOC. Results suggest practical implications for sport managers who wish to provide positive sport experiences for youth refugees.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Exploring Destination Social Carrying Capacity Through the Lens of Community Residents

Description

Social Carrying Capacity (SCC) has been used commonly in the past to study the impact of increasing numbers of tourists on tourists’ satisfaction with a destination. However, it has been

Social Carrying Capacity (SCC) has been used commonly in the past to study the impact of increasing numbers of tourists on tourists’ satisfaction with a destination. However, it has been used less commonly to research the impact of increasing levels of tourism on residents of tourism destinations. As definitions of sustainable tourism shift to be more inclusive of residents, commonly used constructs should also be refined or modified to reflect this ontological shift. Current operational definitions of SCC tend to focus on crowding as the major indicator SCC has been reached. Even the theories commonly used to study SCC, stimulus-overload and expectancy theories, relate directly to crowding. This Master’s thesis aimed to expand the concept of SCC to be more representative of the manifold impacts experienced by residents of tourism destinations as tourism increases. This aim was accomplished through an exploratory mixed methods study ultimately resulting in the creation of a new SCC measurement tool.

The qualitative phase of this research consisted of four focus groups in three sites with varying levels of tourism development. The data from the focus groups were used to inform item writing of a measurement tool that represented a greater number of SCC indicators than crowding to confirm the validity of the indicators in the quantitative phase of the research. After the instrument was distributed via a statewide poll, two structural equation models were fit to compare the operational definitions. A better understanding of the relationship between one of the supporting theories, stimulus-overload theory, and SCC was uncovered with evidence of an emergent connection between SCC and tourism-related stressors.

The results of the research indicate that there are multiple indicators of SCC experienced by residents of tourism destinations which can change in degree and expression as tourism development in a community increases. The operational definition including these indicators explained more variance in support for tourism development than overcrowding alone. A greater awareness of these indicators and their evolution can strengthen the theoretical foundation of SCC and enable practitioners to make multi-faceted, proactive decisions when managing a destination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Adoption and resistance of service innovations by travelers in the sharing economy

Description

This dissertation examines travelers’ innovation adoption and repurchase behaviors in the sharing economy. The central question is to what extent the tourism industry embraces service innovations in the sharing economy.

This dissertation examines travelers’ innovation adoption and repurchase behaviors in the sharing economy. The central question is to what extent the tourism industry embraces service innovations in the sharing economy. Predicated upon behavioral reasoning theory, this research makes a contribution to the tourism study and diffusion of innovation literature, by exploring the influence of travelers’ reasonings in the innovation decision process. The dissertation follows a two-study format. The analysis contextualizes reasons for and against adoption, by incorporating appropriate constructs relevant to service innovations in social dining services (Study 1) and ride-sharing services (Study 2). An exploratory mixed methods approach is taken in both studies. The survey data and the semi-structured interviews are used to identify the context-specific reasons for and against adoption. And, a series of statistical analyses are employed to examine how reasonings influence intentions to adopt social dining services (Study 1) and intentions to repurchase ride-sharing services for the next trip (Study 2).

The main results suggest that both reasons for and reasons against adoption have countervailing influences in the psychological processing, supporting the validity of the research models. The findings also reveal that different psychological paths in travelers’ adoption and repurchase intentions. In Study 1, the trustworthiness of service providers attenuates the reasons against adoption and enhances the likelihood of adopting social dining services in the pre-adoption stage. In Study 2, attitude strength functions as an additional construct, which mediates travelers’ attitudes and ultimately intentions to repurchase ride-sharing services for the next trip in the post-adoption stage. By developing and testing a framework comprising a set of consumers’ beliefs, reasonings for adoption and resistance, attitudes towards adoption, and behavioral responses to the sharing economy, the insights gleaned from this research allow practical recommendations to be made for service providers, platform providers, and policy makers in the tourism industry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Fitness Tourist: Goal Content of Exercisers in the Wellness Tourism Industry

Description

The fitness and wellness industry is expanding at a rapid pace, and part of this expansion includes wellness tourism. Within wellness tourism, fitness related activities and programs are sought by

The fitness and wellness industry is expanding at a rapid pace, and part of this expansion includes wellness tourism. Within wellness tourism, fitness related activities and programs are sought by wellness tourists or more specifically, fitness tourists. Wellness tourism is defined as a journey by people whose motive, in whole or in part, is to maintain or promote their well-being, and who stay at least one night at a facility that is designed to enable and enhance physical, psychological, spiritual and/or social well-being. Inevitably, fitness related activities are offered within wellness tourism, and seem to attract these fitness tourists.

The purpose of this study is two-fold. It is first to examine the goal content fitness tourists possess in this non-traditional exercise context. Second, this study aims to examine the goal pursuits within the promotional content produced by the wellness tourism industry. This study is informed by goal content theory (GCT) which is a mini-theory within self-determination theory (SDT). Developed by Kasser and Ryan (1996), GCT examines how goals pursued by individuals, in this case fitness tourists, whether related to extrinsic or intrinsic content, account for variations in wellness. Extrinsic goals include elements like wealth and appearance, while intrinsic goals include dimensions like community contribution and health management.

Participants were targeted through their consumption of fitness services at wellness tourism resorts in the southwestern United States. The goal content for exercise questionnaire (GCEQ) was distributed to these targeted participants to determine the types of exercisers, intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, who are consuming these services. Additionally, a content analysis was conducted to examine the elements portrayed by the industry within a fitness context. Understanding goal content can allow organizations to create programs supportive of participants’ autonomous motivations which research suggests lead to higher levels of well-being. Using a sample of 100 GCEQs, the study implies fitness tourists are more likely to be white, high income females with stronger intrinsic goal content. Health management, image, and skill development were among the highest ranked goals. A total of 182 images were examined in addition to extensive narrative content on the webpages of these sites suggesting this industry promotes holistic wellness rather than appearance. The results of this study should be used to program physical activity interventions made accessible to low and middle class individuals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The effectiveness of trail mitigation and theory-grounded signage in an economical approach to reducing social trail behaviors

Description

Trails perform an essential function in protected lands by routing visitors along planned, sustainable surfaces. However, when visitors deviate from official trails in sufficient numbers, it can lead to the

Trails perform an essential function in protected lands by routing visitors along planned, sustainable surfaces. However, when visitors deviate from official trails in sufficient numbers, it can lead to the creation of social trails. These visitor-created pathways are not sustainably designed and can severely degrade both the stability and appearance of protected areas. A multitude of recreation motivations among visitors and a lack of resources among land management agencies have made the mitigation and closure of social trails a perennial concern. A sustainable, economical strategy that does not require the continual diversion of staff is needed to address social trails. In this study, two techniques that stand out in the research literature for their efficacy and practicality were tested on a social trail closure in South Mountain Park, a high-use, urban-proximate mountain park in Phoenix, AZ. A research design with additive treatments utilizing the site management technique known as trail mitigation, sometimes referred to as brushing in the literature, followed by theory-grounded signage incorporating injunctive-proscriptive wording, an attribution message, and a reasoning message targeting visitor behavioral beliefs, norms, and control was applied and assessed using unobtrusive observation. Both treatments reduced observed off-trail hiking from 75.4% to 0%, though traces of footsteps and attempts to re-open the trail revealed the existence of unobserved “entrenched” users. With entrenched users attempting to reopen the trail, trail mitigation represented an effective but vulnerable approach while the signage represented a long-lasting “hardened” approach that provides an educational message, management’s stance on the closure, and which might put social pressure on the entrenched user(s).

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018