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Do Mergers and Acquisitions Influence the Core Competency of Chinese Securities Companies? -- A Quantitative Analysis

Description

This thesis investigates whether mergers and acquisitions (M&As) help increase the competitive advantage and core competency of Chinese securities companies. Although M&As among Chinese securities companies were almost exclusively guided by the Chinese government in the earlier years, they have

This thesis investigates whether mergers and acquisitions (M&As) help increase the competitive advantage and core competency of Chinese securities companies. Although M&As among Chinese securities companies were almost exclusively guided by the Chinese government in the earlier years, they have increasingly become more market-driven in recent years. Many large Chinese securities companies have engaged in horizontal mergers, cross-industry mergers, and cross-border mergers to increase their market positions. However, there is little up-to-date evidence about how these market-driven M&As influence the competitive advantage and core competency of securities companies in China. I seek to fill this gap by conducting a systematic analysis about whether M&As increase the core competency of the acquiring companies using data collected over a five-year window from 2010 to 2014.

On the basis of prior research findings and the current situation of the Chinese securities industry, I first develop a theoretical model about the sources of competitive advantage for Chinese securities companies, and then compile a comprehensive list of observable indicators that can be used to assess a Chinese securities company’s core competency. Next, I conduct a quantitative analysis to assess the core competency and relative market positions of the leading Chinese securities companies using data from 2010 to 2014. Overall, the results suggest that market-driven M&As increases the core competency of the acquiring securities companies. I then conduct four in-depth case analyses to better understand the mechanisms through which M&As can help increase the acquiring firms' core competency. I conclude with a discussion of the findings and their implications for Chinese securities companies and the overseeing governmental agencies.

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Date Created
2016

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A Case Study of Executive Stock Compensation Design for The State-Owned Firms

Description

Executive compensation design involving equity shares has been widely used in Europe, the United States and other developed countries where the capital markets are relatively mature. In China, due to the differences in industries, ownership structure, stages of enterprise development,

Executive compensation design involving equity shares has been widely used in Europe, the United States and other developed countries where the capital markets are relatively mature. In China, due to the differences in industries, ownership structure, stages of enterprise development, constraints faced by the firms, the executive compensation design using equity shares tends to vary accordingly. For the state-owned companies, the situations are more complex than others. This complexity has not been a focus of the past literature, particularly on the compensation contract design and its subsequent implementation. Based on Coase contract theorem, agency theory and human capital theory, I examined how different state-owned firms vary in their approaches on managerial stock compensation design using a case study approach. The thesis concludes with a summary of major findings and a discussion of policy implications.

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Date Created
2016

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Risk Identification and Prevention in China’s Guarantee Industry

Description

This study seeks to develop a framework that can help firms in China’s guarantee industry to better identify and prevent risk when they offer guarantee services to small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). With the continuously increasing demands of SME financing,

This study seeks to develop a framework that can help firms in China’s guarantee industry to better identify and prevent risk when they offer guarantee services to small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). With the continuously increasing demands of SME financing, the guarantee industry has developed rapidly in China. Meanwhile, the turmoil in global financial markets and the significant slowdown of global economy have started to have a negative impact on China’s economy, increasing the risk exposure of China’s guarantee industry. In this context, risk identification and prevention becomes the core competence of a guarantee company. Based on a review of the existing research, two in-depth case studies, and the author’s personal experiences in this industry, this paper does not only provide a comprehensive list of the risks that guarantee firms face in China but also measures for risk identification and prevention.

This thesis is organized as follows. First, I provide a brief description about the emergence and development of China’s guarantee industry, as well as its current status. Next, I explain what kinds of risks faced by guarantee firms in China that influence their performance and survival, and summarize the various external and internal risk factors. I also conduct one in-depth case analysis to illustrate how a guarantee firm can better identify the risks it is exposed to. Next, on the basis of another in-depth case analysis, I develop a framework that can help guarantee firms to systematically develop effective measures of risk identification and prevention. I conclude with a discussion of this study’s implications for guarantee firms and the regulatory governmental agencies in China.

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2016

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Investment Style and Performance Attribution Analysis on Chinese A Share Market

Description

With the fast development of Chinese capital market, an increasing number of institutions and retail investors invest through professional managers. The key to evaluating investment manager’s skill and performance persistence largely lies in portfolio style research and attribution analysis.

With the fast development of Chinese capital market, an increasing number of institutions and retail investors invest through professional managers. The key to evaluating investment manager’s skill and performance persistence largely lies in portfolio style research and attribution analysis.

The current dissertation takes advantage of a unique dataset, uncover hidden investment style and trading behavior, understanding their source of excess returns, and establishing a more comprehensive methodology for evaluating portfolio performance and manager skills.

The dissertation focuses on quantitative analysis. Highlights three most important aspects. Investment style determines the systematic returns and risks of any portfolio, and can be assessed ex-ante; Transaction can be observed and modified during the investment process; and return attribution can be implemented to evaluate portfolio (managers), ex-post. Hence, these three elements make up a comprehensive and logical investment process.

Investment style is probably the most important factor in determining portfolio returns. However, Chinese investment managers are under constant pressure to follow the market trend and shift style accordingly. Therefore, accurately identifying and predicting each manager’s investment style proves critically valuable.

In addition, transaction data probably provides the most reliable source of information in observing and evaluating an investment manager’s style and strategy, in the middle of the investment process.

Despite the efficacy of traditional return attribution methodology, there are clear limitations. The current study proposes a novel return attribution methodology, by synthesizing major portfolio strategy components, such as risk exposure adjustment, sector rotation, stock selection, altogether. Our novel methodology reveals that investment managers do not obtain much abnormal returns through risk exposure adjustment or sector rotation. Instead, Chinese investment managers seem to enjoy most of their excess returns through stock selection.

In addition, we find several interesting patterns in Chinese A-share market: 1). There is a negative relationship between asset under management (AUM) and investment performance, beyond certain AUM threshold; 2). There are limited benefits from style switching in the long run; 3). Many investment managers use CSI 300 component stocks as portfolio ballast and speculate with CSI500 and Medium-and-Small board component stocks for excess returns; 4). There is no systematic negative relationship between portfolio turnover and investment performance; despite negative relationship within certain sub-samples and sectors; 5). It is plausible to construct out-performing portfolios with style index funds and ETFs.

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Date Created
2016

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The Impacts on Corporate Performance of the Banking Industry’s Compensation & Incentive Policy

Description

Ever since the registration of private banks was deregulated in Taiwan in 1991, the sector has suffered significant decline in profitability. Facing such a dynamic sector yet vital to domestic economy, what should the banks do to successfully improve their

Ever since the registration of private banks was deregulated in Taiwan in 1991, the sector has suffered significant decline in profitability. Facing such a dynamic sector yet vital to domestic economy, what should the banks do to successfully improve their competiveness? As external changes are often unpredictable, the exploration and buildup of internal resources is a critical approach. This article focuses on how to effectively manage internal competition so as to upgrade business performance and accomplish organizational goals.

This article discusses the effects of the compensation system and employee incentives on business performance in banking in two areas. First of all, based on the statistics on the banking sector in Taiwan, it explores the regulating effects of different compensation systems on two conflicts in the industry. It also reviews the literature on Conflict Theory. Research shows that when people trust each other, they tend to accept a value statement different from theirs. And our research also shows that trust can minimize task conflict and relationship conflict between team members. Moreover, after identifying the role of compensation structure to trust and task conflict, this article further categorizes the structure into team performance reward and individual performance reward. Analysis points out that when the organization bases compensation payment on team performance reward, the relationship between trust and task conflict is higher than that on individual performance reward. That is, team performance reward better helps to reinforce such correlation compared to individual performance reward.

Second, the research studies different forms of employee incentives in Taiwan’s banking sector as well as resulting performance. During the studied period, the majority of the financial institutions preferred cash bonus. In addition, financial institutions also take other incentives. Cash bonus covered the highest percentage, followed by share bonus, treasury repo and transfer, and options in order. We study the ROEs under different incentives and conclude it is higher and more stable in the institutions offering multiple employee shares instead of single method. Whether the incentives are implemented also influence the level of net ROE.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016

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The buck stops where?: examining leader and collective accountability in teams

Description

Accountability has been commonly referred to in the literature as a person’s expectation about others’ evaluations. However, in this study, I develop an alternative perspective of leader accountability by defining it as an individual’s degree of ownership regarding good or

Accountability has been commonly referred to in the literature as a person’s expectation about others’ evaluations. However, in this study, I develop an alternative perspective of leader accountability by defining it as an individual’s degree of ownership regarding good or poor performance and acceptance of associated rewards or disciplinary actions. Based on attribution theory, leaders can have internal and external ownership regarding good and poor performance. I propose that accountability can be categorized into two correlated but distinct aspects: self-benefitting and other-benefitting. Leader self-benefitting accountability refers to leaders’ attributions towards their own benefits (i.e., internal attribution of good performance and external attribution of poor performance). Leader other-benefitting accountability reflects leaders’ attributions towards others’ interests (i.e., internal attribution of poor performance and external attribution of good performance). Using multiple samples, I develop and validate a leader accountability scale, and then test a theoretical model with a focus on leader accountability and collective accountability (i.e., a group of individuals’ degree of ownership) by collecting data from 57 leaders and 162 followers in three Chinese companies. The findings show that leader humility is positively related to leader other-benefitting accountability. Both leader self-benefitting and other-benefitting accountability are associated with collective self-benefitting and other-benefitting accountability, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between leader self-benefitting and collective self-benefitting accountability is enhanced when the leader has high organization prototypicality. Furthermore, collective self-benefitting accountability decreases leader effectiveness and team effectiveness, while collective other-benefitting accountability increases leader effectiveness.

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Date Created
2016

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Value creation of private equity funds: practices in China

Description

Based on multiple case studies of the transactions in China by private equity funds, this paper attempts to explore the value-creation capabilities of private equity funds at the transaction/deal level.

Previous studies on financial performance of PE funds utilized data

Based on multiple case studies of the transactions in China by private equity funds, this paper attempts to explore the value-creation capabilities of private equity funds at the transaction/deal level.

Previous studies on financial performance of PE funds utilized data collected from publically traded companies in European/US markets. By measuring financial performance of both “pre- and post-transactions,” these studies researched two questions: 1) Do buyout funds create value? 2) If they do, what are the sources of value creation? In general, studies conclude that private equity/buyout funds do create value at both the deal level and investor level. They also identified four possible sources of such value creation: 1) undervaluation, 2) leverage effect, 3) better governance, and 4) operational improvement.

However, relatively little is known about the process of value creation. In this study, I attempt to fill that gap, revealing the “secret recipe” of value creation.

By carefully looking into the process of value creation, this study suggests five propositions covering capabilities at 1) deal selection/screening, 2) deal structuring, 3) operational improvement, 4) investment exit, and 5) Top Management Team (TMT). These capabilities at private equity/buyout funds are critical factors for value creation. In a thorough review of the value-creation process, this paper hopes to:

1) Share real-life experiences and lessons learned on private equity transactions in China as a developing economy.

2) Reveal the process of deal/transaction to observe measures taken place within deal/transaction for value creation.

3) Show how well-executed strategies and capabilities in deal selection/screening, deal structuring, operational improvement, and investment exit can still create value for private equity firms without financial leverage.

4) Share the experience of State-Owned Enterprises (SOE) reform participated in by private equity firms in China. This could provide valuable information for policy makers in China.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016

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A Case Study of Credit Risk Analysis and Modeling for SMEs -In an Internet Finance Setting

Description

In the last two years, China’s booming of Internet Finance Platform made significant impacts on three dimensions. Compared with the conventional market, Internet Finance is asserted to open a revolutionary pathway of lending where by small and mid-sized companies may

In the last two years, China’s booming of Internet Finance Platform made significant impacts on three dimensions. Compared with the conventional market, Internet Finance is asserted to open a revolutionary pathway of lending where by small and mid-sized companies may overcome the financing dilemma on credit accessibility and high cost. In other words, Internet Finance is hyped to be able to reduce information asymmetry, enhance allocation efficiency of resources, and promote product and process innovations for the financial institutions. However, the core essence of Internet Finance rests on risk assessment and control – a fundamental element applies to all forms of financing. Most current practice of internet finance on risk assessment and control remains unchanged from the mindset of traditional banking practices for small and medium sized firms. Hence, the same problems persisted and may only become even worse under the internet finance platform if no innovations take place.

In this thesis, the author proposed and tested a credit risk assessment model using data analytics techniques through an in-depth cases study with actual transaction data. Specifically, based on the 30,000 observations collected from actual transactional data from small and medium size firms of China’s home furnishing industry. The preliminary results are promising in spite of the limitations. The thesis concludes with the findings of relevance to improve the current practices and suggests areas of future research.

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Date Created
2016

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Research on Factors Influencing Individual’s Behavior of Energy Management

Description

With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers

With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products.

This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI).

Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual’s EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI’s three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016

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Research of Dynamic Relationship between the Price of Alternative Investment Products and Macro-Economy

Description

This paper studies the dynamic relationship between the pricing of Alternative Asset Management products and macroeconomic variables. It does so using an index of Alternative Asset Management products, employing a VAR framework and examining the implied impulse response functions. I

This paper studies the dynamic relationship between the pricing of Alternative Asset Management products and macroeconomic variables. It does so using an index of Alternative Asset Management products, employing a VAR framework and examining the implied impulse response functions. I find a bivariate causal relation between the expected rate of return on Alternative Asset Management products and the growth rate of industrial value added. I also find that the CPI, the yield on one-year national debt, the weighted average yield of bond repurchases in interbank bond market, and the one-year loan interest rate can influence the expected return rate of Alternative Asset Management products. An analysis of the variance decomposition suggests that macroeconomic variables have a different impacts on forecast errors variance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016