Matching Items (5)

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Synthesis and Structural Properties of FAU-Type Zeolite Prepared from Fly Ash

Description

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash,

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three faujasite varieties, labeled X, P and S, were prepared for each mix design. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to obtain porosity information on the samples. Mechanical strength testing was performed on solid blocks of the zeolite samples prepared in a mold. It was found that the S variety in mix design (iv) had the most desirable balance of porosity and strength for engineering applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitation Utilizing Fresh Urine and Calcium-Rich Zeolites

Description

Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a biocementation technique that produces comparatively fewer carbon dioxide emissions than traditional cementation. However, the use of synthetic reagents for EICP is costly, and the

Enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) is a biocementation technique that produces comparatively fewer carbon dioxide emissions than traditional cementation. However, the use of synthetic reagents for EICP is costly, and the process produces an ammonium byproduct which is a harmful pollutant. This study utilizes fresh urine as a source of urea and calcium-rich zeolites as an ammonium adsorbent and a source of calcium ions for the EICP cementation technique. Batch hydrolysis and adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, and solution composition on ammonium adsorption and calcium release. Cementation experiments were then conducted to determine the effects of different hydrolysis and adsorption times on ammonium adsorption and calcium carbonate precipitation. The results showed that calcium-rich chabazite could be used as a source of calcium ions and as an effective adsorbent of ammonium for EICP. Additionally, synthetic, fresh urine and real, fresh urine had comparable ammonium adsorption and calcium release trends. Finally, inclusion of a pre-hydrolysis step reduced the ammonium adsorption and calcium release, but longer adsorption times lead to calcium carbonate precipitation outside of the sand column, which is an undesirable outcome for soil biocementation; even with this limitation, the calcium carbonate content of sand columns ranged from 0.48% to 0.92%, which signifies the potential of the proposed process for cementation, given a higher initial concentration of urea.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Growth and characterization of multisegment chalcogenide alloy nanostructures for photonic applications in a wide spectral range

Description

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system.

In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet heterostructure with a wavelength separation of 91 nm under sufficiently strong pumping power.

In the second part, I considered several combinations of source materials with different growth methods in order to extend the spectral coverage of previously demonstrated structures towards shorter wavelengths to achieve full-color emissions. I achieved this with the growth of multisegment heterostructure nanosheets (MSHNs), using ZnS and CdSe chalcogenides, via our novel growth method. By utilizing this method, I demonstrated the first growth of ZnCdSSe MSHNs with an overall lattice mismatch of 6.6%, emitting red, green and blue light simultaneously, in a single furnace run using a simple CVD system. The key to this growth method is the dual ion exchange process which converts nanosheets rich in CdSe to nanosheets rich in ZnS, demonstrated for the first time in this work. Tri-chromatic white light emission with different correlated color temperature values was achieved under different growth conditions. We demonstrated multicolor (191 nm total wavelength separation) laser from a single monolithic semiconductor nanostructure for the first time. Due to the difficulties associated with growing semiconductor materials of differing composition on a given substrate using traditional planar epitaxial technology, our nanostructures and growth method are very promising for various device applications, including but not limited to: illumination, multicolor displays, photodetectors, spectrometers and monolithic multicolor lasers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effect of anion exchange resin properties on the adsorption of PFAAs and NOM

Description

Humans are exposed up to thousands of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the environment, but most of the research and action has been directed towards only two PFAS compounds.

Humans are exposed up to thousands of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the environment, but most of the research and action has been directed towards only two PFAS compounds. These two compounds are part of a subcategory of PFAS called perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). It has been a challenge for the environmental community to mitigate risks caused by PFAAs due to their high persistence and lack of effective measures to remove them from the environment, especially in heavily impacted areas like fire-training sites. The goal of this work was to further answer some questions regarding the removal of PFAAs in the environment by looking at anion exchange resin characteristics and presence of a competing compound, natural organic matter (NOM), in the adsorption of environmentally relevant PFAS compounds including the two often monitored 8-carbon chain PFAAs. Two different resins were tested with two forms of counterions, in both groundwater and NOM impacted groundwater. Resin polymer matrix was the most important property in the adsorption of PFAAs, the two resins used A520E and A860 had similar properties except for their matrices polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylic (PA), respectively. The PS base is most effective at PFAAs adsorption, while the PA is most effective at NOM adsorption. The change in the counterion did not negatively affect the adsorption of PFAAs and is, therefore, a viable alternative for future studies that include regeneration and destruction of PFAAs. The presence of NOM also did not significantly affect the adsorption of PFAAs in the PS resin A520E, although for some PFAAs compounds it did affect adsorption for the PA resin. Ultimately, PS macroporous resins with a strong Type I or Type II base work best in PFAAs removal.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Occurrence and treatment of hexavalent chromium and arsenic in Arizona municipal and industrial waters

Description

Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) occur naturally in AZ surface and groundwaters, pose different health impacts, and exhibit different treatment efficacies. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has newly recognized human health concerns,

Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) occur naturally in AZ surface and groundwaters, pose different health impacts, and exhibit different treatment efficacies. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has newly recognized human health concerns, and State and Federal agencies are evaluating a low Cr(VI)-specific maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. Occurrence of Cr and As in municipal drinking waters and industrial cooling tower waters was quantified by grab samples and compared with sampling results obtained from a new passive sampler developed specifically for Cr(VI). Cr(VI) and As concentrations in groundwater used for cooling tower make-up water concentrations were ~3 ppb and ~4 ppb, respectively, and were concentrated significantly in blowdown water (~20 ppb and ~40 ppb). Based upon pending Cr(VI), As, and other metal regulations, these blowdown waters will need routine monitoring and treatment. Cr(VI) concentrations in a water treatment plant (WTP) raw and finished water samples varied from 0.5 and 2 ppb for grab samples collected every 4 hours for 7 consecutive days using an ISCO sampler. The development of an ion exchange (IX) based passive sampler was validated in the field at the WTP and yielded an average exposure within 1 standard deviation of ISCO sampler grab data. Sampling at both the WTP and cooling towers suggested sources of Cr(III) from treatment chemicals or wood preservatives may exist. Since both facilities use chlorine oxidants, I quantified the apparent (pH=5) second-order rate constant for aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl-) with Cr(III) to form Cr(VI) as 0.7 M-1s-1. Under typical conditions (2 ppb Cr(III) ; 2 mg/L Cl2) the half-life for the conversion of Cr(III) to the more toxic form Cr(VI) is 4.7 hours. The occurrence studies in AZ and CA show the Cr(VI) and As treatment of groundwaters will be required to meet stringent Cr(VI) regulations. IX technologies, both strong base anion (SBA) and weak base anion (WBA) resin types were screened (and compared) for Cr removal. The SBA IX process for As removal was optimized by utilizing a reactive iron coagulation and filtration (RCF) process to treat spent IX brine, which was then reused to for SBA resin regeneration.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014