Matching Items (5)

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Migration and invasion study of non-transformed mammary epithelial cells overexpressing TP53 missense mutations frequently occurring in breast cancer

Description

The purpose of this project was to identify proteins associated with the migration and invasion of non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells with ectopically expressed missense mutations in p53. Because of

The purpose of this project was to identify proteins associated with the migration and invasion of non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells with ectopically expressed missense mutations in p53. Because of the prevalence of TP53 missense mutations in basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer tumors, understanding the effect of TP53 mutations on the phenotypic expression of human mammary epithelial cells may offer new therapeutic targets for those currently lacking in treatment options. As such, MCF10A mammary epithelial cells ectopically overexpressing structural mutations (G245S, H179R, R175H, Y163C, Y220C, and Y234C) and DNA-binding mutations (R248Q, R248W, R273C, and R273H) in the DNA-binding domain were selected for use in this project. Overexpression of p53 in the mutant cell lines was confirmed by western blot and q-PCR analysis targeting the V5 epitope tag present in the pLenti4 vector used to transduce TP53 into the mutant cell lines. Characterization of the invasion and migration phenotypes resulting from the overexpression of p53 in the mutant cell lines was achieved using transwell invasion and migration assays with Boyden chambers. Statistical analysis showed that three cell lines—DNA-contact mutants R248W and R273C and structural mutant Y220C—were consistently more migratory and invasive and demonstrated a relationship between the migration and invasion properties of the mutant cell lines. Two families of proteins were then explored: those involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Results of q-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal proteins Slug and Vimentin did not show a clear relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels with the migration and invasiveness phenotypes observed in the transwell studies. Results of western blotting, q-PCR, and zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9 also did not show any consistent results indicating a definite relationship between MMPs and the overall invasiveness of the cells. Finally, two drugs were tested as possible treatments inhibiting invasiveness: ebselen and SBI-183. These drugs were tested on only the most invasive of the MCF10A p53 mutant cell lines (R248W, R273C, and Y220C). Results of invasion assay following 30 μM treatment with ebselen and SBI-183 showed that ebselen does not inhibit invasiveness; SBI-183, however, did inhibit invasiveness in all three cell lines tested. As such, SBI-183 will be an important compound to study in the future as a treatment that could potentially serve to benefit triple-negative or basal-like breast cancer patients who currently lack therapeutic treatment options.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Mechanics of cancer cells in 3D microenvironments

Description

Mechanical properties (e.g. deformability or stiffness) are critical to a cancer cell's ability to maneuver through and exert forces upon the extracellular matrix, and thus affect its ability to metastasize.

Mechanical properties (e.g. deformability or stiffness) are critical to a cancer cell's ability to maneuver through and exert forces upon the extracellular matrix, and thus affect its ability to metastasize. §3.1 introduces the experimental method combining atomic force microscope (AFM) based indentation and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). §3.2 presents a method combining AFM and confocal microscopy (AFM stiffness nanotomography), and results on normal and pre-cancerous esophageal cells which indicate that even in the earliest stages, cancer cells exhibit increased deformability. §3.3 presents experimental results on weakly metastatic breast cancer cells that compare well with values obtained from other experimental methods and demonstrates that the mechanical response of cells to sharp and mesoscale probes differ significantly. §3.4 presents experimental results indicating that metastatic breast cancer cells are more deformable than normal counterparts, and demonstrates that indentation measurements with sharp probes are capable of identifying mechanical differences between cytoplasmic, nuclear and nucleolar regions of the cell. §3.5 presents results on weakly metastatic breast cancer cells sensitive and resistant to tamoxifen (an estrogen antagonist), and demonstrate that estrogen has a significant effect on cell stiffness. §3.6 applies stiffness nanotomography to study metastatic breast cancer cells allowed to invade 3D collagen gels, demonstrating the ability to use AFM indentation on heterogeneous samples, and shows that cell stiffness increases during the invasion process for partially and fully embedded metastatic breast cancer cells.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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From plasma peptide to phenotype: the emerging role of quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 in tumor cell biology

Description

Cancer is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide each year. The metastatic progression of cancer is the number one reason for cancer related deaths. Cancer preventions rely on

Cancer is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide each year. The metastatic progression of cancer is the number one reason for cancer related deaths. Cancer preventions rely on the early identification of tumor cells as well as a detailed understanding of cancer as a whole. Identifying proteins specific to tumor cells provide an opportunity to develop noninvasive clinical tests and further our understanding of tumor biology. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) a short peptide was identified in pancreatic cancer patient plasma that was not found in normal samples, and mapped back to QSOX1 protein. Immunohistochemistry was performed probing for QSOX1 in tumor tissue and discovered that QSOX1 is highly over-expressed in pancreatic and breast tumors. QSOX1 is a FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase that is extremely efficient at forming disulfide bonds in nascent proteins. While the enzymology of QSOX1 has been well studied, the tumor biology of QSOX1 has not been studied. To begin to determine the advantage that QSOX1 over-expression provides to tumors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to reduce the expression of QSOX1 in human tumor cell lines. Following the loss of QSOX1 growth rate, apoptosis, cell cycle and invasive potential were compared between tumor cells transduced with shQSOX1 and control tumor cells. Knock-down of QSOX1 protein suppressed tumor cell growth but had no effect on apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. However, shQSOX1 dramatically inhibited the abilities of both pancreatic and breast tumor cells to invade through Matrigel in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Mechanistically, shQSOX1-transduced tumor cells secreted MMP-2 and -9 that were less active than MMP-2 and -9 from control cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of QSOX1-mediated tumor cell invasion is through the post-translational activation of MMPs. This dissertation represents the first in depth study of the role that QSOX1 plays in tumor cell biology.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Loss of LKB1 leads to alteration of the immune microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer

Description

The majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (70%) are diagnosed with adenocarcinoma versus other histological subtypes. These patients often present with advanced, metastatic disease and frequently relapse after

The majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (70%) are diagnosed with adenocarcinoma versus other histological subtypes. These patients often present with advanced, metastatic disease and frequently relapse after treatment. The tumor suppressor, Liver Kinase B1, is frequently inactivated in adenocarcinomas and loss of function is associated with a highly aggressive, metastatic tumor (1). Identification of the mechanisms deregulated with LKB1 inactivation could yield targeted therapeutic options for adenocarcinoma patients. Re-purposing the immune system to support tumor growth and aid in metastasis has been shown to be a feature in cancer progression (2). Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) differentiate from monocytes, which are recruited to the tumor microenvironment via secretion of chemotaxic factors by cancer cells. We find that NSCLC cells deficient in LKB1 display increased secretion of C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment. To elucidate the molecular pathway regulating CCL2 up-regulation, we investigated inhibitors of substrates downstream of LKB1 signaling in A549, H23, H2030 and H838 cell lines. Noticeably, BAY-11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) reduced CCL2 secretion by an average 92%. We further demonstrate that a CCR2 antagonist and neutralizing CCL2 antibody substantially reduce monocyte migration to NSCLC (H23) cell line conditioned media. Using an in vivo model of NSCLC, we find that LKB1 deleted tumors demonstrate a discernible increase in CCL2 levels compared to normal lung. Moreover, tumors display an increase in the M2:M1 macrophage ratio and increase in tumor associated neutrophil (TAN) infiltrate compared to normal lung. This M2 shift was significantly reduced in mice treated with anti-CCL2 or a CCR2 antagonist and the TAN infiltrate was significantly reduced with the CCR2 antagonist. These data suggest that deregulation of the CCL2/CCR2 signaling axis could play a role in cancer progression in LKB1 deficient tumors.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Quantifying mechanical heterogeneity in 3D biological systems with the atomic force microscope

Description

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of directly probing the mechanics of samples with length scales from single molecules to tissues and force scales from pico to micronewtons. In

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of directly probing the mechanics of samples with length scales from single molecules to tissues and force scales from pico to micronewtons. In particular, AFM is widely used as a tool to measure the elastic modulus of soft biological samples by collecting force-indentation relationships and fitting these to classic elastic contact models. However, the analysis of raw force-indentation data may be complicated by mechanical heterogeneity present in biological systems. An analytical model of an elastic indentation on a bonded two-layer sample was solved. This may be used to account for substrate effects and more generally address experimental design for samples with varying elasticity. This model was applied to two mechanobiology systems of interest. First, AFM was combined with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and finite element analysis to examine stiffness changes during the initial stages of invasion of MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cells into bovine collagen I matrices. It was determined that the cells stiffen significantly as they invade, the amount of stiffening is correlated with the elastic modulus of the collagen gel, and inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase reduces the elastic modulus of the invading cells. Second, the elastic modulus of cancer cell nuclei was investigated ex situ and in situ. It was observed that inhibition of histone deacetylation to facilitate chromatin decondenstation result in significantly more morphological and stiffness changes in cancerous cells compared to normal cells. The methods and results presented here offer novel strategies for approaching biological systems with AFM and demonstrate its applicability and necessity in studying cellular function in physiologically relevant environments.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015