Matching Items (5)

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Spin Transport in Metallic Films with Strong Spin-Orbital Coupling

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In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power

In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently, thermal effects in magnetic materials have attracted a great deal of attention because of its potential to generate pure spin currents using a thermal gradient (∇T), such as the spin Seebeck effect. However, unlike electric potential, the exact thermal gradient direction is experimentally difficult to control, which has already caused misinterpretation of the thermal effects in Py and Py/Pt films. In this work, we show that a well-defined ∇T can be created by two thermoelectric coolers (TECs) based on Peltier effect. The ∇T as well as its sign can be accurately controlled by the driven voltage on the TECs. Using a square-wave driven potential, thermal effects of a few μV can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the anomalous Nernst effect in magnetic Co/Py and Py/Pt layers and determined their angular dependence. The angular dependence shows the same symmetry as the anomalous Hall effect in these films.
This work has been carried out under the guidance of the author’s thesis advisor, Professor Tingyong Chen.

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  • 2015-05

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Luminescent cyclometalated platinum and palladium complexes with novel photophysical properties

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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than a decade, OLEDs have grown from a promising academic curiosity into a multi-billion dollar global industry. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient, compatible with existing materials, long lived, and produce light predominantly at useful wavelengths. Developing an understanding of the photophysical processes that dictate the luminescent properties of emissive materials is vital to their continued development. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 provide an introduction to the topics presented and the laboratory methods used to explore them. Chapter 3 discusses a series of tridentate platinum complexes. A synthetic method utilizing microwave irradiation was explored, as well as a study of the effects ligand structure had on the excited state properties. Results and techniques developed in this endeavor were used as a foundation for the work undertaken in later chapters. Chapter 4 introduces a series of tetradentate platinum complexes that share a phenoxy-pyridyl (popy) motif. The new molecular design improved efficiency through increased rigidity and modification of the excited state properties. This class of platinum complexes were markedly more efficient than those presented in Chapter 3, and devices employing a green emitting complex of the series achieved nearly 100% electron-to-photon conversion efficiency in an OLED device. Chapter 5 adapts the ligand structure developed in Chapter 4 to palladium. The resulting complexes exceed reported efficiencies of palladium complexes by an order of magnitude. This chapter also provides the first report of a palladium complex as an emitter in an OLED device. Chapter 6 discusses the continuation of development efforts to include carbazolyl components in the ligand. These complexes possess interesting luminescent properties including ultra-narrow emission and metal assisted delayed fluorescence (MADF) emission.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Preliminary Studies on Protein-Aided Nanoparticle Interactions

Description

This work aims to characterize protein-nanoparticle interactions through the application of experimental techniques to aid in controlled nanoparticle production for various applications from manufacturing through medical to defense. It includes

This work aims to characterize protein-nanoparticle interactions through the application of experimental techniques to aid in controlled nanoparticle production for various applications from manufacturing through medical to defense. It includes multiple steps to obtain purified and characterized protein and then the production of nanoparticles using the protein. This application of protein requires extremely pure homogenous solution of the protein that was achieved using numerous protein separation techniques which were experimented with. Crystallization conditions, protein separation methods and protein characterization methods were all investigated along with the protein-nanoparticle interaction studies. The main protein of study here is GroEL and the inorganic nanoparticle used is platinum. Some studies on MBP producing gold nanoparticles from an ionic gold precursor were also conducted to get a better perspective on nanoparticle formation. Protein purification methods, crystallization conditions, Car-9 tag testing and protein characterization methods were all investigated along with the focus of this work. It was concluded that more Car9 studies need to be carried out before being used as in the form of a loop in the protein. The nanoparticle experiments were successful and platinum nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using GroEL. The direction of further research in protein-nanoparticle studies are outlined towards the end of the thesis.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Pt/Pt alloy and manganese dioxides based oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for low-temperature fuel cells

Description

The fuel cell is a promising device that converts the chemical energy directly into the electrical energy without combustion process. However, the slow reaction rate of the oxygen reduction reaction

The fuel cell is a promising device that converts the chemical energy directly into the electrical energy without combustion process. However, the slow reaction rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) necessitates the development of cathode catalysts for low-temperature fuel cells. After a thorough literature review in Chapter 1, the thesis is divided into three parts as given below in Chapters 2-4.

Chapter 2 describes the study on the Pt and Pt-Me (Me: Co, Ni) alloy nanoparticles supported on the pyrolyzed zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) towards ORR. The Co-ZIF and NiCo-ZIF were synthesized by the solvothermal method and then mixed with Pt precursor. After pyrolysis and acid leaching, the PtCo/NC and PtNiCo/NC were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The peak power density exhibited > 10% and 15% for PtCo/NC and PtNiCo/NC, respectively, compared to that with commercial Pt/C catalyst under identical test conditions.

Chapter 3 is the investigation of the oxygen vacancy (OV) effect in a-MnO2 as a cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC). The a-MnO2 nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method and heated at 300, 400 and 500 ℃ in the air to introduce the OV. The 400 ℃ treated material showed the best ORR performance among all other samples due to more OV in pure a-MnO2 phase. The optimized AMFC electrode showed ~ 45 mW.cm-2, which was slightly lower than that with commercial Pt/C (~60 mW.cm-2).

Chapter 4 is the density functional theory (DFT) study of the protonation effect and active sites towards ORR on a-MnO2 (211) plane. The theoretically optimized oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies were ~ 1.55-1.95 eV and ~ 0.98-1.45 eV, respectively, by Nørskov et al.’s calculations. All the configurations showed oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies were ranging from 0.27 to 1.76 eV and 1.59 to 15.0 eV, respectively. The site which was close to two Mn ions showed the best oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies improvement with the surface protonation.

Based on the results given in Chapters 1-4, the major findings are summarized in Chapter 5.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Tuning anomalous Hall effect and spin polarized current in magnetic ultrathin films

Description

In this dissertation I studied the anomalous Hall effect in MgO/Permalloy/Nonmagnetic Metal(NM) based structure, spin polarized current in YIG/Pt based thin films and the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA)

In this dissertation I studied the anomalous Hall effect in MgO/Permalloy/Nonmagnetic Metal(NM) based structure, spin polarized current in YIG/Pt based thin films and the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) in the Ru/Co/Ru based structures.

The anomalous Hall effect is the observation of a nonzero voltage difference across a magnetic material transverse to the current that flows through the material and the external magnetic field. Unlike the ordinary Hall effect which is observed in nonmagnetic metals, the anomalous Hall effect is only observed in magnetic materials and is orders of magnitude larger than the ordinary Hall effect. Unlike quantum anomalous Hall effect which only works in low temperature and extremely large magnetic field, anomalous Hall effect can be measured at room temperature under a relatively small magnetic field. This allows the anomalous Hall effect to have great potential applications in spintronics and be a good characterization tool for ferromagnetic materials especially materials that have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA).

In my research, it is observed that a polarity change of the Hall resistance in the MgO/Permalloy/NM structure can be obtained when certain nonmagnetic metal is used as the capping layer while no polarity change is observed when some other metal is used as the capping layer. This allows us to tune the polarity of the anomalous Hall effect by changing the thickness of a component of the structure. My conclusion is that an intrinsic mechanism from Berry curvature plays an important role in the sign of anomalous Hall resistivity in the MgO/Py/HM structures. Surface and interfacial scattering also make substantial contribution to the measured Hall resistivity.

Spin polarization(P) is one of the key concepts in spintronics and is defined as the difference in the spin up and spin down electron population near the Fermi level of a conductor. It has great applications in the spintronics field such as the creation of spin transfer torques, magnetic tunnel junction(MTJ), spintronic logic devices.

In my research, spin polarization is measured on platinum layers grown on a YIG layer. Platinum is a nonmagnetic metal with strong spin orbit coupling which intrinsically has zero spin polarization. Nontrivial spin polarization measured by ARS is observed in the Pt layer when it is grown on YIG ferromagnetic insulator. This result is contrary to the zero spin polarization in the Pt layer when it is grown directly on SiO2 substrate. Magnetic proximity effect and spin current pumping from YIG into Pt is proposed as the reason of the nontrivial spin polarization induced in Pt. An even higher spin polarization in the Pt layer is observed when an ultrathin NiO layer or Cu layer is inserted between Pt and YIG which blocks the proximity effect. The spin polarization in the NiO inserted sample shows temperature dependence. This demonstrates that the spin current transmission is further enhanced in ultrathin NiO layers through magnon and spin fluctuations.

Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy(PMA) has important applications in spintronics and magnetic storage. In the last chapter, I study the origin of PMA in one of the structures that shows PMA: Ru/Co/Ru. By measuring the ARS curve while changing the magnetic field orientation, the origin of the PMA in this structure is determined to be the strain induced by lattice mismatch.

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Date Created
  • 2018