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Modeling the mantle genesis of basalts from the Lassen Volcanic Center

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There are many outstanding questions regarding the petrologic processes that give rise to andesitic and basaltic magmas in subduction zones, including the specifics that govern their geographical distribution in a

There are many outstanding questions regarding the petrologic processes that give rise to andesitic and basaltic magmas in subduction zones, including the specifics that govern their geographical distribution in a given arc segment. Here I investigate the genesis of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic basalts from the Lassen Volcanic Center in order to determine the pressure, temperature, source composition, and method of melting that lead to the production of melt in the mantle below Lassen. To this aim, a suite of primitive basalts (i.e. SiO2<52 and Mg#>65) are corrected for fractional crystallization by adding minerals back to the bulk rock composition with the goal of returning them to a primary composition in equilibrium with the mantle. Thermobarometry of the primary melt compositions is conducted to determine temperature and pressure of melting, in addition to a forward mantle modeling technique to simulate mantle melting at varying pressures to constrain source composition and method of melting (batch vs. fractional). The results from the two techniques agree on an average depth of melt extraction of 36 km and a source composition similar to that of depleted mantle melted by batch melting. Although attempted for both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic basalts, the fractional crystallization correction and thus the pressure-temperature calculations were only successful for tholeiitic basalts due to the hydrous nature of the calc-alkaline samples. This leaves an opportunity to repeat this study with parameters appropriate for hydrous basalts, allowing for the comparison of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic melting conditions.

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  • 2015-05

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Neotectonics of Java, Indonesia: crustal deformation in the overriding plate of an orthogonal subduction system

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Shallow earthquakes in the upper part of the overriding plate of subduction zones can be devastating due to their proximity to population centers despite the smaller rupture extents than

Shallow earthquakes in the upper part of the overriding plate of subduction zones can be devastating due to their proximity to population centers despite the smaller rupture extents than commonly occur on subduction megathrusts that produce the largest earthquakes. Damaging effects can be greater in volcanic arcs like Java because ground shaking is amplified by surficial deposits of uncompacted volcaniclastic sediments. Identifying the upper-plate structures and their potential hazards is key for minimizing the dangers they pose. In particular, the knowledge of the regional stress field and deformation pattern in this region will help us to better understand how subduction and collision affects deformation in this part of the overriding plate. The majority of the upper plate deformation studies have been focused on the deformation in the main thrusts of the fore-arc region. Study of deformation within volcanic arc is limited despite the associated earthquake hazards. In this study, I use maps of active upper-plate structures, earthquake moment tensor data and stress orientation deduced from volcano morphology analysis to characterize the strain field of Java arc. In addition, I use sandbox analog modeling to evaluate the mechanical factors that may be important in controlling deformation. My field- and remotely-based mapping of active faults and folds, supplemented by results from my paleoseismic studies and physical models of the system, suggest that Java’s deformation is distributed over broad areas along small-scale structures. Java is segmented into three main zones based on their distinctive structural patterns and stress orientation. East Java is characterized by NW-SE normal and strike-slip faults, Central Java has E-W folds and thrust faults, and NE-SW strike-slip faults dominate West Java. The sandbox analog models indicate that the strain in response to collision is partitioned into thrusting and strike-slip faulting, with the dominance of margin-normal thrust faulting. My models test the effects of convergence obliquity, geometry, preexisting weaknesses, asperities, and lateral strength contrast. The result suggest that slight variations in convergence obliquity do not affect the deformation pattern significantly, while the margin shape, lateral strength contrast, and perturbation of deformation from asperities each have a greater impact on deformation.

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Date Created
  • 2016