Matching Items (28)

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Teaching Biology in a Maximum-Security Prison Unit: Feedback, Notes and Recommendations from a Pilot Class

Description

We, a team of students and faculty in the life sciences at Arizona State University (ASU), currently teach an Introduction to Biology course in a Level 5, or maximum-security unit

We, a team of students and faculty in the life sciences at Arizona State University (ASU), currently teach an Introduction to Biology course in a Level 5, or maximum-security unit with the support of the Arizona Department of Corrections and the Prison Education Program at ASU. This course aims to enhance current programs at the unit by offering inmates an opportunity to practice literacy and math skills, while also providing exposure to a new academic field (science, and specifically biology). Numerous studies, including a 2005 study from the Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC), have found that vocational programs, including prison education programs, reduce recidivism rates (ADC 2005, Esperian 2010, Jancic 1988, Steurer et al. 2001, Ubic 2002) and may provide additional benefits such as engagement with a world outside the justice system (Duguid 1992), the opportunity for inmates to revise personal patterns of rejecting education that they may regret, and the ability of inmate parents to deliberately set a good example for their children (Hall and Killacky 2008). Teaching in a maximum security prison unit poses special challenges, which include a prohibition on most outside materials (except paper), severe restrictions on student-teacher and student-student interactions, and the inability to perform any lab exercises except limited computer simulations. Lack of literature discussing theoretical and practical aspects of teaching science in such environment has prompted us to conduct an ongoing study to generate notes and recommendations from this class through the use of surveys, academic evaluation of students' work and ongoing feedback from both teachers and students to inform teaching practices in future science classes in high-security prison units.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The use of proportional reasoning and rational number concepts by adults in the workplace

Description

Industry, academia, and government have spent tremendous amounts of money over several decades trying to improve the mathematical abilities of students. They have hoped that improvements in students' abilities

Industry, academia, and government have spent tremendous amounts of money over several decades trying to improve the mathematical abilities of students. They have hoped that improvements in students' abilities will have an impact on adults' mathematical abilities in an increasingly technology-based workplace. This study was conducted to begin checking for these impacts. It examined how nine adults in their workplace solved problems that purportedly entailed proportional reasoning and supporting rational number concepts (cognates).

The research focused on four questions: a) in what ways do workers encounter and utilize the cognates while on the job; b) do workers engage cognate problems they encounter at work differently from similar cognate problems found in a textbook; c) what mathematical difficulties involving the cognates do workers experience while on the job, and; d) what tools, techniques, and social supports do workers use to augment or supplant their own abilities when confronted with difficulties involving the cognates.

Noteworthy findings included: a) individual workers encountered cognate problems at a rate of nearly four times per hour; b) all of the workers engaged the cognates primarily via discourse with others and not by written or electronic means; c) generally, workers had difficulty with units and solving problems involving intensive ratios; d) many workers regularly used a novel form of guess & check to produce a loose estimate as an answer; and e) workers relied on the social structure of the store to mitigate the impact and defuse the responsibility for any errors they made.

Based on the totality of the evidence, three hypotheses were discussed: a) the binomial aspect of a conjecture that stated employees were hired either with sufficient mathematical skills or with deficient skills was rejected; b) heuristics, tables, and stand-ins were maximally effective only if workers individually developed them after a need was recognized; and c) distributed cognition was rejected as an explanatory framework by arguing that the studied workers and their environment formed a system that was itself a heuristic on a grand scale.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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We Observe, We Reflect, We Research: Data-Driven, Job-Embedded Science Professional Development with Early Head Start Teachers

Description

The purpose of this action research was to understand how reflective, job-embedded early childhood science professional learning and development (PLD) impacted Early Head Start (EHS) teacher learning and their perceptions

The purpose of this action research was to understand how reflective, job-embedded early childhood science professional learning and development (PLD) impacted Early Head Start (EHS) teacher learning and their perceptions toward science with toddlers. Limited content knowledge and lack of formal preparation impact teachers’ understanding of developmentally appropriate science and their capacity to support children to develop science skills. In Arizona, limited availability of early childhood science coursework and no science-related PLD for toddler teachers showed the need for this project. Four literature themes were reviewed: teacher as researcher, how people learn, reflective PLD, and how young children develop scientific thinking skills.

The participants were nine EHS teachers who worked at the same Head Start program in five different classrooms in Arizona. The innovation included early childhood science workshops, collaboration and reflecting meetings (CPRM), and electronic correspondence. These were job-embedded, meaning they related to the teachers’ day-to-day work with toddlers. Qualitative data were collected through CPRM transcripts, pre/post-project interviews, and researcher journal entries. Data were analyzed using constant comparative method and grounded theory through open, focused, and selective coding.

Results showed that teachers learned about their pedagogy and the capacities of toddlers in their classrooms. Through reflective PLD meetings, teachers developed an understanding of toddlers’ abilities to engage with science. Teachers acquired and implemented teacher research skills and utilized the study of documentation to better understand children’s interests and abilities. They recognized the role of the teacher to provide open-ended materials and time. Moreover, teachers improved their comfort with science and enhanced their observational skills. The teachers then saw their role in supporting science as more active. The researcher concluded that the project helped address the problem of practice. Future research should consider job-embedded PLD as an important approach to supporting data-driven instructional practices and reflection about children’s capabilities and competencies.

Keywords: action research, Arizona Early Childhood Workforce Knowledge and Competencies, Arizona’s Infant and Toddler Developmental Guidelines (ITDG), documentation, early childhood science, Early Head Start (EHS), Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework (ELOF), inquiry, job-embedded, pedagogy, professional development (PD), reflective professional development, teacher as researcher, teacher research, toddler science

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Building an Inclusive Library through Staff Accessibility Training

Description

Libraries provide a needed third place for students to engage with their peers and faculty, both academically and socially. Staff behavior, knowledge, and skills in providing an accessible and inclusive

Libraries provide a needed third place for students to engage with their peers and faculty, both academically and socially. Staff behavior, knowledge, and skills in providing an accessible and inclusive environment are key to helping students with disabilities feel that they belong in the libraries. This makes training in disability and accessibility awareness a necessary component of the overall program for the library. This study assessed a locally-developed, online training program for staff of all levels that was intended to improve staff knowledge and skills in disability etiquette, library services and spaces that support people with disabilities, and the policies that govern this work. The program used the four-part Deines-Jones (1999) model for its content and the core principles of andragogy for its instructional design. Assessment focused on changes in beliefs and knowledge using an adapted standardized scale, and evidence for learning from responses to training program questions, focus group discussions, and survey responses. Further development of the training program was informed by the principles of andragogy. Participants in the training program improved their scores in the knowledge domain but had no change in their beliefs domain. Learning was most evident in spaces where it engaged with previous knowledge and supportive customer service approaches. Participants identified and, in several cases, independently pursued new questions that were prompted by the training program. On the whole, participants found the training to be supportive and engaging, with minor changes to structure and focus recommended for the next iteration.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Parents' perspectives in their child's education in two-parent households

Description

The purpose of the research study was to explore the perceptions of Navajo mothers and Navajo fathers in the development and childrearing practices of their children and to what extent

The purpose of the research study was to explore the perceptions of Navajo mothers and Navajo fathers in the development and childrearing practices of their children and to what extent each parent was involved in their children by gender and age. The objective of the interviews was to capture the perceptions of each parent as to child development and childrearing practices as well as the beliefs that they have on parental involvement. In the current study, the interviews provided information regarding attitudes and perceptions of parental involvement from the Navajo mothers and the Navajo fathers who participated in the study. By using probing questions, deeper insights into the understanding and perceptions of parental involvement were obtained.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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MBA admissions requirements as predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies in self-selected online MBA students

Description

Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6

Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6 million students took at least one online class, an increase in 17% over 2008. Graduate business education, and more specifically, Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs have responded to this growth and other drivers such as globalization, institutional competition and student demand by leveraging the online platform more extensively. Because of the continued growth of online programs, there is an ongoing need to better understand the motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies students utilize to achieve academic success. Self-regulation is a social-cognitive construct supported by several decades of research, which posits that students engage in a self-directive process to transform their mental abilities into academic skills. Online MBA students balance work, family, business travel and other life events while pursuing their degree. Their ability to balance life events while succeeding academically suggests they possess the capacity for academic self-regulation. Can admissions requirements that are already in place provide insight into how students' manage their academic self-regulation? This study examined the relationship between the MBA admissions requirements of Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) total score, GMAT verbal score and years of work experience to determine if they were predictive of the student's motivational beliefs and self-regulatory learning strategies. GMAT scores and years of work experience are often thought to be predictors of student success in MBA programs. Self-selected online MBA students (n = 130) completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire during the final week of Organization Theory and Behavior, a core course in the MBA program. Analysis indicated that the MBA admissions requirements of GMAT total score, GMAT verbal score, and years of work experience were not reliable predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies. The findings indicate that while admissions criteria may be predictive of student success in the overall program, they provide little insight about how students manage their motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies while participating in their courses.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Theoretical Underpinnings of Music Therapists’ Decisions to (Not) Pursue Doctoral Study: A Framework for a Professional Development Seminar to Promote the Pursuit of Doctoral MT Education

Description

Despite a substantial increase of Masters of Music Therapy degree recipients between 2002 (Cohen et. al, 2002) and 2017 (American Music Therapy Association, 2017), these numbers are not paralleled among

Despite a substantial increase of Masters of Music Therapy degree recipients between 2002 (Cohen et. al, 2002) and 2017 (American Music Therapy Association, 2017), these numbers are not paralleled among recipients of PhD degrees with music therapy emphases. Additionally, it is notable that the Master’s Level Entry (MLE) Subcommittee Report (2017) notes “lack of doctoral programs and/or doctoral level music therapy faculty needed to sustain graduate level music therapy education programs” (p.18) as a deterrent to the move to Master's-Level Entry within the music therapy milieu. This underscores the importance of doctorate-level music therapists to the profession. Could increasing the prevalence of doctorate-level music therapists help to promote advanced studies in music therapy, and in turn augment the status of music therapy education and training? The purpose of this project was to examine advanced-level music therapists’ perceived catalysts and barriers to pursuing a doctoral degree in music therapy. Incorporating the Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent et. al, 1994) as the underlying framework, qualitative data was garnered via semi-structured interviews with advanced-practicing music therapists located in the southwestern United States. A thematic qualitative data analysis was conducted, whereby parent codes reflected key constructs of the theoretical lens and child codes were developed inductively. Interviewees highlighted advantages of pursuing a PhD including: professional status, educational growth, and opportunities to educate others. Likewise, they identified pertinent barriers pertaining to finances, narrow job market, and dominance of research foci over clinical skills. In light of these findings, a framework for a hypothetical, Southwest-based professional development seminar was developed and embedded into the SCCT context. The hypothetical program encompassed key objectives to educate participants about the key processes, benefits and drawbacks of pursuing the music therapy doctorate, and aimed to help participants develop penchants toward the pursuit of doctorate degrees. The nine modules featured discussions and interactive learning techniques, in addition to proffering individualized mentoring from music therapy doctorate recipients as a key mainstay of the program. Modules addressed the following topics: Introductions and testimonials; PhD application and funding processes; Clinical skills; Work/life/school balance; Faculty responsibilities (research, teaching and service); Mock interview/audition; and Mentorship presentations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Word-Study for Arabic Speakers to Read English

Description

Learning to read in English is difficult for adult English language learners due to their diverse background, their level of experience with literacy in their first language, and their reason

Learning to read in English is difficult for adult English language learners due to their diverse background, their level of experience with literacy in their first language, and their reason and desire for wanting to learn to read in English. Teachers of adult language learners must consider the educational and language experiences of adults enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes in order to provide adequate learning opportunities for a diverse student body. Promoting learning opportunities for adult Arabic speakers was an area of interest for me when I first began teaching adult English language learners six years ago. The purpose of my action research study was to provide the adult Arabic speakers in my classroom with strategies they could use in order to read accurately in English. Current research used to guide my study focused on the difficulties Arabic speakers have with the orthographic features of the English language. As I conducted various cycles of action research in an ESL reading class, I developed an intervention to support adult Arabic speakers gain an understanding of the sound spelling system of the English language inclusive of instructional strategies to support accurate word reading. Data was collected to identify the individuals experience in learning to read. I included a pre and post miscue analysis to help identify the common error patterns of the participants of my study. Over an eight-week period, I followed a constructivist approach and facilitated word sorts to help students identify common sound spellings found in the English language. Instructional strategies were included to help the participants decode multisyllabic words by bringing awareness to the syllable types found in the English language. The findings of my study revealed that Arabic speakers benefited from an intervention focused on the sound spellings and syllabication of the English language.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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( Dis)ability workshop: the effect of growth mindset and universal design for learning on teacher understanding of disability and intelligence

Description

According to national data, there continues to be an ongoing achievement gap between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers (USDE, n.d.b). This data is representative of a continued disparity

According to national data, there continues to be an ongoing achievement gap between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers (USDE, n.d.b). This data is representative of a continued disparity in academic performance for students in local Arizona school districts. To address this gap, many districts have implemented inclusion models in which students with disabilities spend increasing amounts of time in general education classrooms, in some cases for the majority of or all of their school day. However, the persistence of the achievement gap suggests that general education teachers working in inclusion models may be lacking systematic instructional methods for ensuring access to the curriculum for those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs.

The purpose of this action research study was to examine the impact that a series of professional development workshops had on teacher beliefs and understanding of disability, intelligence, and accessible pedagogy. The study was conducted over the course of a school semester at a kindergarten through 8th grade school in a large, semi-rural school district in southeastern Arizona. Ten teachers from a variety of grade levels and subject areas participated in the study along with a school psychologist and two school administrators. Theoretical frameworks guiding this project included critical disability theory, growth mindset, universal design for learning, and transformative learning theory. A mixed-methods action research approach was used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data in the form of surveys, interviews, and written reflections. The workshop series included five modules that began with activities fostering critical reflection of assumptions regarding disability and intelligence and ended with pedagogical strategies in the form of universal design for learning.

The results indicate that the innovation was successful in reshaping participant views of disability, intelligence, and pedagogy; however, changes in classroom instruction were small. Implications for future research and practice include more extended sessions on universal design for learning and a more diverse sample of participants. Workshop sessions utilized a variety of active learning activities that were well received by participants and will be included in future professional learning plans across the district.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Training Deficiencies in Airport Surface Operations at Night

Description

There are significantly higher rates of pilot error events during surface operations at night than during the day. Events include incidents, accidents, wrong surface takeoffs and landings, hitting objects, turning

There are significantly higher rates of pilot error events during surface operations at night than during the day. Events include incidents, accidents, wrong surface takeoffs and landings, hitting objects, turning on the wrong taxiway, departing the runway surface, among others. There is evidence to suggest that these events are linked to situational awareness. Improvements to situational awareness can be accomplished through training to instruct pilots to increase attention outside of the cockpit while taxiing at night. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) night time requirements are relatively low to obtain a private pilot certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of flight training experience on conducting safe and incident-free surface operations at night, collect pilot opinions on night training requirements and resources, and analyze the need for night time on flight reviews. A survey was distributed to general aviation pilots and 239 responses were collected to be analyzed. The responses indicated a higher observed incident rate at night than during the day, however there were no significant effects of night training hours or type of training received (Part 61, Part 141/142, or both) on incident rate. Additionally, higher total night hours improved pilot confidence at night and decreased incident rate. The overall opinions indicated that FAA resources on night flying were effective in providing support, but overall pilots were not in support of or against adding night time requirements to flight reviews and found night training requirements to be somewhat effective.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020