Matching Items (2)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

137282-Thumbnail Image.png

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex (M1) in the Context-Dependent Interference

Description

A previous study demonstrated that learning to lift an object is context-based and that in the presence of both the memory and visual cues, the acquired sensorimotor memory to manipulate

A previous study demonstrated that learning to lift an object is context-based and that in the presence of both the memory and visual cues, the acquired sensorimotor memory to manipulate an object in one context interferes with the performance of the same task in presence of visual information about a different context (Fu et al, 2012).
The purpose of this study is to know whether the primary motor cortex (M1) plays a role in the sensorimotor memory. It was hypothesized that temporary disruption of the M1 following the learning to minimize a tilt using a ‘L’ shaped object would negatively affect the retention of sensorimotor memory and thus reduce interference between the memory acquired in one context and the visual cues to perform the same task in a different context.
Significant findings were shown in blocks 1, 2, and 4. In block 3, subjects displayed insignificant amount of learning. However, it cannot be concluded that there is full interference in block 3. Therefore, looked into 3 effects in statistical analysis: the main effects of the blocks, the main effects of the trials, and the effects of the blocks and trials combined. From the block effects, there is a p-value of 0.001, and from the trial effects, the p-value is less than 0.001. Both of these effects indicate that there is learning occurring. However, when looking at the blocks * trials effects, we see a p-value of 0.002 < 0.05 indicating significant interaction between sensorimotor memories. Based on the results that were found, there is a presence of interference in all the blocks but not enough to justify the use of TMS in order to reduce interference because there is a partial reduction of interference from the control experiment. It is evident that the time delay might be the issue between context switches. By reducing the time delay between block 2 and 3 from 10 minutes to 5 minutes, I will hope to see significant learning to occur from the first trial to the second trial.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

136335-Thumbnail Image.png

Time-dependent modulations in corticospinal excitability during motor learning

Description

The primary motor cortex (M1) plays a vital role in motor planning and execution, as well as in motor learning. Baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) in M1 is known to increase

The primary motor cortex (M1) plays a vital role in motor planning and execution, as well as in motor learning. Baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) in M1 is known to increase as a result of motor learning, but less is understand about the modulation of CSE at the pre-execution planning stage due to learning. This question was addressed using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to measure the modulation of both baseline and planning CSE due to learning a reach to grasp task. It was hypothesized that baseline CSE would increase and planning CSE decrease as a function of trial; an increase in baseline CSE would replicate established findings in the literature, while a decrease in planning would be a novel finding. Eight right-handed subjects were visually cued to exert a precise grip force, with the goal of producing that force accurately and consistently. Subjects effectively learned the task in the first 10 trials, but no significant trends were found in the modulation of baseline or planning CSE. The lack of significant results may be due to the very quick learning phase or the lower intensity of training as compared to past studies. The findings presented here suggest that planning and baseline CSE may be modulated along different time courses as learning occurs and point to some important considerations for future studies addressing this question.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05