Matching Items (5)

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Importance of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains in measles virus

Description

Lipid microdomains play a vital role in a number of biological processes. They are often a target of diseases and viruses. Viruses in particular utilize lipid microdomains to gain entry

Lipid microdomains play a vital role in a number of biological processes. They are often a target of diseases and viruses. Viruses in particular utilize lipid microdomains to gain entry and fuse with the host-cell membrane. Measles virus (MV) a human pathogen, spread from cell to cell by inducing fusion of cellular membranes. This causes the formation of large multinucleated cells, syncytia. It has been previously reported that lipid microdomains are essential for measles virus infection/replication. In this study we used methyl beta cyclodextrin (MBCD), a cholesterol-sequestering agent to disrupt lipid microdomains. Through transfection of Vero h/SLAM cells, we found that Measles virus fusion was dependent on lipid microdomains integrity. Indeed, a dose dependent fusion inhibition was documented with increasing concentrations of MBCD resulting in reduced formation of syncytia.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Case of Vacher, L'Éventreur: Medico-Legal Responses to Psychiatric Development in Fin de Siècle France

Description

My research examines the case of Joseph Vacher, one of the most prolific serial murderers in French history, as a micro- historical study to analyze the evolution of criminal theory

My research examines the case of Joseph Vacher, one of the most prolific serial murderers in French history, as a micro- historical study to analyze the evolution of criminal theory and application of the insanity defense over the course of the Belle Époque, as French judicial systems and medico-legal experts attempted to cope with the emerging psychiatric distinction between mental illness and personality disorders. Historically, attempts to explain seemingly unmotivated homicides left a narrow margain for mitigating factors, aside from pleas of insanity. The success of such pleas reflected the conviction that these crimes could only result from severe mental incapacity. Nevertheless, in the late nineteenth century, there emerged a new medical perspective, the sadism diagnosis. Those involved in the realm of criminal behavior began to entertain the possibility that certain individuals might commit violent acts in pursuit of pleasure while maintaining full command of their reason.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Importance of Cholesterol Depletion in Measles Virus Infection and Replication

Description

Lipid membranes are a key structure for many classes of viruses. Lipid membranes can be analyzed using the fluid mosaic model, which states that the phospholipid membrane has variable amounts

Lipid membranes are a key structure for many classes of viruses. Lipid membranes can be analyzed using the fluid mosaic model, which states that the phospholipid membrane has variable amounts of fluidity and key membrane proteins are presented in areas stabilized by cholesterol-enriched platforms called lipid rafts. This project aims to further the understanding of the importance of lipid rafts in measles virus (MV) infection and replication, which has not been extensively studied. In order to do this, an MV-susceptible cell line was treated with an anti-cholesterol compound before and after measles virus infection. I found that pre-infection treatments had a marginal effect upon measles cytopathic effect (syncytia formation) or replication. Twenty-four hours post-infection treatment had a deleterious effect on cell viability, but the replication/assembly of infectious units per cell decreased importantly and in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, by measuring the susceptibility to neutralization of infectious particles obtained from MBCD treated cells, I determined the importance of lipid microdomain environment on the stability of infectious particles. Increased anti-cholesterol treatment enhanced the susceptibility of MV to neutralization. Future studies are proposed to assess the properties of cholesterol depleted viral infectious units.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Rapid point-of-care testing for measles immunity

Description

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps,

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, vaccine coverage is highly variable across global regions. Current diagnostic methods rely on enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to detect IgM or IgG Abs in serum. Commercially available Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Measles IgG test kit has been shown to have 91.1% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 88.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.9% on the basis of a PRN titer of 120. There is an increasing need for rapid screening for measles specific immunity in outbreak settings. This study aims to develop a rapid molecular diagnostic assay to detect IgG reactive to three individual measles virus (MeV) proteins.

Measles virus (MeV) genes were subcloned into the pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N- terminal GST fusion proteins. Single MeV cistrons were expressed using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) with human cell lysate. Expression of GST-tagged proteins was measured with mouse anti-GST mAb and sheep anti-mouse IgG. Relative light units (RLUs) as luminescence was measured. Antibodies to MeV antigens were measured in 40 serum samples from healthy subjects.

Protein expression of three MeV genes of interest was measured in comparison with vector control and statistical significance was determined using the Student’s t-test (p<0.05). N expressed at the highest level with an average RLU value of 3.01 x 109 (p<0.001) and all proteins were expressed at least 50% greater than vector control (4.56 x 106 RLU). 36/40 serum samples had IgG to N (Ag:GST ratio>1.21), F (Ag:GST ratio>1.92), or H (Ag:GST ratio> 1.23).

These data indicate that the in vitro expression of MeV antigens, N, F, and H, were markedly improved by subcloning into pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N-terminal GST fusion proteins. The expression of single MeV genes N, F and H, are suitable antigens for serologic capture analysis of measles-specific antibodies. These preliminary data can be used to design a more intensive study to explore the possibilities of using these MeV antigens as a diagnostic marker.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Vaccination strategy to protect against flavivirus infection based on recombinant measles vaccine

Description

Despite the approval of a Dengue virus (DV) vaccine in five endemic countries, dengue prevention would benefit from an immunization strategy highly immunogenic in young infants and not curtailed by

Despite the approval of a Dengue virus (DV) vaccine in five endemic countries, dengue prevention would benefit from an immunization strategy highly immunogenic in young infants and not curtailed by viral interference. Problematically, infants younger than 9 year of age, whom are particularly prone to Dengue severe infection and death, cannot be immunized using current approved DV vaccine. The most important issues documented so far are the lack of efficiency and enhancement of the disease in young seronegative recipients, as well as uneven protection against the four DV serotypes. Based on data from clinical trials that showed enhanced performance of dengue vaccines when the host has previous anti-flaviviral immunity, I proposed here an attractive solution to complement the current vaccine: a recombinant measles vaccine vectoring dengue protective antigens to be administered to young infants. I hypothesized that recombinant measles virus expressing Dengue 2 and 4 antigens would successfully induce neutralizing responses against DV2 and 4 and the vaccine cocktail of this recombinant measles can prime anti-flaviviral neutralizing immunity. For this dissertation, I generated and performed preclinical immune assessment for four novel Measles-Dengue (MV-DV) vaccine candidates. I generated four MVs expressing the pre membrane (prM) and full length or truncated (90%) forms of the major envelope (E) from DV2 and DV4. Two virus, MVvac2-DV2(prME)N and MVvac2-DV4(prME), expressed high levels of membrane associated full-length E, while the other two viruses, MVvac2-DV2(prMEsol)N and MVvac2-DV4(prMEsol)N, expressed and secreted truncated, soluble E protein to its extracellular environment. The last two vectored vaccines proved superior anti-dengue neutralizing responses comparing to its corresponding full length vectors. Remarkably, when MVvac2-DV2/4(prMEsol)N recombinant vaccines were combined, the vaccine cocktail was able to prime cross-neutralizing responses against DV 1 and the relatively distant 17D yellow fever virus attenuated strain. Thus, I identify a promising DV vaccination strategy, MVvac2-DV2/4(prMEsol)N, which can prime broad neutralizing immune responses by using only two of the four available DV serotypes. The current MV immunization scheme can be advantageus to prime broad anti-flaviviral neutralizing immunity status, which will be majorly boosted by subsequent chimeric Dengue vaccine approaches.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016