Matching Items (6)

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Examining the Effect of Vinegar on Glucose Response

Description

The objective of this randomized, single-blind crossover study was to examine the effect of vinegar on the blood glucose response to meal ingestion. This study was associated with a

The objective of this randomized, single-blind crossover study was to examine the effect of vinegar on the blood glucose response to meal ingestion. This study was associated with a companion study Is Apple Cider Vinegar Effective for Reducing Heartburn Symptoms Related to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Glucose meters were utilized to measure blood glucose levels immediately prior to, and at four ½ hour intervals following meal ingestion. Previous studies have demonstrated that vinegar modulates the meal-time glucose response. Hence an alternative hypothesis was used: that a significant difference will be observed between the control and the vinegar groups. The results from the study were not significant likely due to a small sample size. The test meal eaten with a drink composed of vinegar diluted in water appeared to be most effective at decreasing the overall change in postprandial blood glucose. The vinegar drink also played a role in decreasing the peak glucose level at 30 minutes post-meal.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Reduction of visceral fat in response to consumption of red wine vinegar

Description

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin.

Subjects and Methods: Forty-five sedentary overweight and obese adult participants with a waist circumference greater than 32 inches for women and 37 inches for men were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the vinegar group (VIN, n=21) or the control group (CON, n=24), and instructed to consume either two tablespoons of liquid red wine vinegar (3.6g acetic acid) or a control pill (0.0225g acetic acid) twice daily at the beginning of a meal for 8 weeks. Participants were also instructed to maintain normal diet and physical activity levels. Anthropometric measures, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood samples, and 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and at end of trial. A compliance calendar was provided for daily tracking of vinegar supplementation.

Results: Compliance to vinegar supplementation averaged 92.7 ±13.3% among the VIN group and 89.1 ±18.9% among the CON group. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric measurements between baseline and week 8: weight (P=0.694), BMI (P=0.879), and waist circumference (P=0.871). Similarly, DXA scan data did not show significant changes in visceral fat (P=0.339) or total fat (P=0.294) between baseline and week 8. The VIN group had significant reductions in fasting glucose (P=0.003), fasting insulin (P <0.001), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance scores (P <0.001) after treatment.

Conclusions: These data do not support the findings from previous studies that indicated a link between vinegar supplementation and increased fat metabolism, specifically visceral fat reduction.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Developing the optimal vinaigrette dressing for managing blood glucose concentrations

Description

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid.

Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a control dressing two groups of nine healthy adult subjects (18-52 years). Height, weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) were performed at baseline. Subjects participated in four test sessions each, at least seven days apart. After a 10-hour fast, participants consumed 38g of the test drink, followed by a bagel meal. Capillary blood glucose was obtained at fasting, and every 30 minutes over a 2-hour period the test meal.

Results: Dressing pH reduced as sodium content increased. In the intervention trials, no significant differences were observed between groups (p >0.05). The greatest reduction in postprandial glycemia (~21%) was observed in the dressing containing 200 mg of sodium. Effect size was large in both group 1 (η2=0.161) and group 2 (η2=0.577).

Conclusion: The inclusion of sodium into acetic acid may impair its ability to attenuate blood glucose after a meal.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Colonic fermentation as a byproduct of vinegar consumption: a parallel arm randomized control trial in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

Description

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a placebo (2 vinegar pills containing 40mg acetic acid each). All participants were required to consume the vinegar drink (16 oz) or 2 placebo pills every day for 12 weeks. At week 12, participants filled out a questionnaire to report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and three consecutive breath samples were taken from each subject to measure fasting breath hydrogen (BH2) with a breath analyzer. Fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (16.1+11.8 ppm) were significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.39 (p=0.023). After adjusting for age as a confounding factor (r=0.406) and removing an outlier, fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (4.3+1.1 ppm) were still significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.35 (p=0.045). Participants in both groups reported mild changes in GI symptoms. In conclusion, adults at risk for type 2 diabetes that consume 2 tablespoons of vinegar a day may have increased gut fermentation compared to those who do not consume vinegar.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Visceral fat reduction in response to red wine vinegar consumption

Description

To date, there have not been any studies in a human population that explore the potential of vinegar ingestion in reducing visceral fat, a common yet serious metabolic disease risk

To date, there have not been any studies in a human population that explore the potential of vinegar ingestion in reducing visceral fat, a common yet serious metabolic disease risk factor. However, previous research in animal models exhibit promising findings, showing that vinegar is effective at reducing visceral fat. This is thought to be due to the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate protein kinase) by acetic acid, the active ingredient in vinegar. The purpose of this study was to identify if this potentially groundbreaking relationship exists in human subjects. Healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary adults between the ages 18-45 y and a waist circumference measurement greater than or equal to 33 inches for women and 38 inches for men were recruited for this study. Twenty-three participants completed this 8-week, parallel arm, randomized control trial that tested the efficacy of red wine vinegar consumption (2 tablespoons red wine vinegar, twice per day, before a meal; providing 3.6 g acetic acid) against a placebo (1 apple cider vinegar pill, twice per day, before a meal; providing 0.0225 g acetic acid) for 8 weeks. Participants were randomized into either the vinegar (VIN) or control (CON) group after being stratified by age, gender, waist circumference, and weight. Results found that the VIN group experienced a 2% decrease in visceral fat (cm3, quantified by a DXA scan), but this change did not differ significantly from that of the CON group (p=0.256). The VIN group also experienced a slight decrease in insulin compared to the CON group, but this change was not significantly different than the control change (p=0.125). However, the change in HOMA-IR trended downward in the VIN group (-16%) as compared to the CON group (+9%) (p=0.079) with a large effect size, 0.153. Other parameters did not show statistically significant results between the groups. Further research is indicated in order to examine the potential of vinegar to reduce visceral fat.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Vinegar's effects on hemoglobin A1c and postprandial glycemia in individuals at risk for diabetes

Description

Objective: Vinegar consumption studies have demonstrated possible therapeutic effects in reducing HbA1c and postprandial glycemia. The purpose of the study was to closely examine the effects of a commercial vinegar

Objective: Vinegar consumption studies have demonstrated possible therapeutic effects in reducing HbA1c and postprandial glycemia. The purpose of the study was to closely examine the effects of a commercial vinegar drink on daily fluctuations in fasting glucose concentrations and postprandial glycemia, and on HbA1c, in individuals at risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). Design: Thirteen women and one man (21-62 y; mean, 46.0±3.9 y) participated in this 12-week parallel-arm trial. Participants were recruited from a campus community and were healthy and not diabetic by self-report. Participants were not prescribed oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin; other medications were allowed if use was stable for > 3 months. Subjects were randomized to one of two groups: VIN (8 ounces vinegar drink providing 1.5 g acetic acid) or CON (1 vinegar pill providing 0.04 g acetic acid). Treatments were taken twice daily immediately prior to the lunch and dinner meals. Venous blood samples were drawn at trial weeks 0 and 12 to measure insulin, fasting glucose, and HbA1c. Subjects recorded fasting glucose and 2-h postprandial glycemia concentrations daily using a glucometer. Results: The VIN group showed significant reductions in fasting capillary blood glucose concentrations (p=0.05) that were immediate and sustained throughout the duration of the study. The VIN group had reductions in 2-h postprandial glucose (mean change of −7.6±6.8 mg/dL over the 12-week trial), but this value was not significantly different than that for the CON group (mean change of 3.3±5.3 mg/dL over the 12-week trial, p=0.232). HbA1c did not significantly change (p=0.702), but the reduction in HbA1c in the VIN group, −0.14±0.1%, may have physiological relevance. Conclusions: Significant reductions in HbA1c were not observed after daily consumption of a vinegar drink containing 1.5 g acetic acid in non-diabetic individuals. However, the vinegar drink did significantly reduce fasting capillary blood glucose concentrations in these individuals as compared to a vinegar pill containing 0.04 g acetic acid. These results support a therapeutic effect for vinegar in T2D prevention and progression, specifically in high-risk populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013