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Combined Impact of Aerobic Exercise and Music on Glycemic Control and Anxiety Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Men and Women

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ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains

ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains less clear.
Purpose: This study examined the effect of 15-minute of post-meal aerobic exercise on the glycemic control and anxiety scores as compared with control trials in participants with and without type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Six adults volunteered to participate in the study (3 adults with type 2 diabetes, age = 44.33 ± 7.71; and 3 adults without type 2 diabetes, age = 31.67 ± 15.76). All participants received aerobic exercise intervention and control treatments. The aerobic exercise treatment was listening to upbeat music and dancing for 15-minutes, whereas the control participants ingested 1 gram of vitamin C 30-minutes post-meal. Glucose levels were measured at baseline, and the 10, and 15-minute mark in both exercise intervention and control conditions 30-minutes post-meal.
Results: There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the change in glucose levels (P<0.001). There was a significant mean difference in change in glucose levels between exercise intervention and control conditions (P = 0.002). Change in glucose levels in exercise intervention was significantly decreased at 10-minute (-18 ± 4.35 vs. 1.67 ± 4.34, P = 0.009) and 15-minute (-24 ± 4.88 vs. 5.67 ± 4.88, P = 0.001) compared with control condition. Although there were no statistical differences in state anxiety scores between pre- and post-exercise intervention (p=0.42), there was a significant trend in the reduction of state anxiety scores in diabetic participants, as compared with healthy participants, after 15-minute exercise intervention (-8 vs. -1).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 15-minute by dancing to music after a meal is an effective approach to controlling the blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic and healthy persons.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Associations of depression, sleep, and acculturation on glycemic control in Korean Americans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets of A1C levels below seven percent. Poor glycemic control disproportionately affects minority populations such as Korean Americans (KAs). Successful diabetes self-management requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account depression, sleep, and acculturation to achieve good glycemic control. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the levels of glycemic control, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and duration, and acculturation; 2) examine an association of depressive symptoms with glycemic control; 3) identify mediational roles of sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; and 4) explore a moderation role of acculturation between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in KAs with T2DM. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. A total of 119 first generation KAs with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona. A1C levels, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Berlin Questionnaire were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, path analyses, and the Sobel tests were conducted for data analyses of this study. Poor glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %), high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), and short sleep duration (< 6 hours) were prevalent among KAs with T2DM. The mean score of acculturation (2.18) indicated low acculturation to Western culture. Depressive symptoms were revealed as a significant independent predictor of glycemic control. Physical activity was negatively associated with glycemic control, while cultural identity was positively related to glycemic control. Sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours did not mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Acculturation did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Diabetes self-management interventions of a comprehensive approach that considers depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and cultural differences in minority populations with T2DM are needed.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without exercise training, on body fat mass and selected cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese, sedentary males

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The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high in fat and sugar have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise aids in the prevention of weight/fat gain, and prevents deleterious changes in cardiometabolic function. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without two different exercise training protocols, on body composition, glycemic control and other markers of cardiovascular disease in an at-risk population of overweight and obese males. Twenty-seven, healthy overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) males were fed 2 donuts per day, 6 days/week, for four weeks, while maintaining their current diet. In addition, all subjects were randomized to one of the following conditions: sedentary control, 1,000 kcal/week moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) (50% of peak oxygen consumption), or 1,000 kcal/week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (90-95% of peak heart rate). Supervised exercise training was performed 4 days/week on a cycle ergometer. Changes in body weight and composition, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, glycemic control, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Body weight, lean mass and visceral fat increased significantly in HIIT (p<0.05) and were unchanged in MICT. There was a trend for a significant increase in body weight (p=0.07) and lean mass (p=0.11) in control. Glycemic control during the 2-h OGTT improved significantly in MICT and control, with no change in HIIT. Hepatic insulin resistance index (IRI) and 30-min insulin during the OGTT improved significantly after MICT and worsened following control (p=0.03), while HIIT was unchanged. CRF increased significantly in both HIIT and MICT, with no change in control (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in other markers of cardiovascular disease. The addition of a fat-sugar supplement (~14,500 kcal) over a 4-week period was not sufficient to induce deleterious changes in body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese young males. Exercise training did not afford overweight/obese males additional health benefits, with the exception of improvements in fitness and hepatic IRI.

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Date Created
  • 2016