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Factors Influencing Bone Marrow Donation Among the College-Aged Population

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The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and perceptions regarding bone marrow donation among the college-aged population. This was examined by distributing an online survey via ASU e-mail list-servs. The survey was designed to measure motivations and barriers

The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and perceptions regarding bone marrow donation among the college-aged population. This was examined by distributing an online survey via ASU e-mail list-servs. The survey was designed to measure motivations and barriers to bone marrow donation and involved a demographics questionnaire, a participant motivation survey, an incentives questionnaire, and paired comparisons between bone marrow and other forms of medical donation. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVAs, chi-square analysis, and presence or absence coding using SPSS v. 22. Significant differences were found in the way that the sexes answered parts of the participant motivation questionnaire. Significant differences were also found in the responses of participants who planned to donate bone marrow and those that did not. The main differences between those planning to donate bone marrow and those who were not planning on are as follows. Those planning to donate bone marrow or something other than bone marrow were more likely to be curious about what bone marrow donation is like and feel good about themselves for donating marrow than participants who were not planning on donating anything. Those planning to donate bone marrow were more likely to have a friend group that would be supportive than those were were not planning to donate bone marrow. Those who were not planning to donate bone marrow had more concerns regarding the risks and health effects of the act of donation itself.

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Date Created
2015-05

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I shouldn't have to worry about being raped: attitudes and beliefs about sexual assault among college students

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One in five college women report being sexually assaulted (National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2015) with college being the time when men are more likely to commit a sexual assault (Burgess, 2007). Victimization detracts from their college experience, leading to

One in five college women report being sexually assaulted (National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2015) with college being the time when men are more likely to commit a sexual assault (Burgess, 2007). Victimization detracts from their college experience, leading to poor academic performance or less institutional commitment. College women who are victims of sexual assault are also at a higher risk of participating in risky sexual behavior. To reduce the prevalence of sexual assault at universities, it is important to develop effective prevention programs that can target and change attitudes and beliefs that contribute to the continued perpetuation of sexual violence on college campuses. Although there are multiple studies that examine the perspectives of sexual assault among college students, specifically rape myths, the majority of that research is quantitative and does not provide an in depth understanding of their beliefs and the potential factors that contribute to those beliefs. The purpose of this study was to provide an in depth analysis of the attitudes and beliefs about sexual assault among college students.

Twenty-five female and 20 male college students participated in semi-structured focus groups or interviews. Open coding was used to gain an understanding of their beliefs concerning sexual assault. Results demonstrated that students possess multiple and often contradictory beliefs about sexual assault and issues that contribute to those beliefs that can be addressed and changed using sexual assault prevention. Three of those broad themes included barriers to talking about sexual assault, social and cultural norms that contribute to sexual assault and how college students communicate their sexual needs and desires, including consent. This research reveals that researchers and advocates do not have a complete understanding of perspectives of sexual assault among college students. Prevention programs may have been developed based on incomplete information and assumptions about what college students believe. Therefore, this study provides information that can be used to develop intervention programs that specifically target the most relevant ideas about sexual assault that are most relevant to the experiences of college students.

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Date Created
2018

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Multidimensional Models to Understand Travel Behavior Implications for Transport and Household Energy Use

Description

To reduce the environmental burden of transport, previous studies have resorted on solutions that accentuate towards techno-economical pathways. However, there is growing evidence that transport behaviors, lifestyle choices, and the role of individuals' attitudes/perceptions are considered influential factors in shaping

To reduce the environmental burden of transport, previous studies have resorted on solutions that accentuate towards techno-economical pathways. However, there is growing evidence that transport behaviors, lifestyle choices, and the role of individuals' attitudes/perceptions are considered influential factors in shaping households’ engagement with sustainable technologies in the face of environmental crises. The objective of this dissertation is to develop multidimensional econometric model systems to explore complex relationships that can help us understand travel behaviors' implications for transport and household energy use. To this end, the second chapter of this dissertation utilizes the latent segmentation approach to quantify and unravel the relationship between attitudes and behaviors while recognizing the presence of unobserved heterogeneity in the population. It was found that two-thirds of the population fall in the causal structure where behavioral experiences are shaping attitudes, while for one-third attitudes are shaping behaviors. The findings have implications on the energy-behavior modeling paradigm and forecasting household energy use. Building on chapter two, the third chapter develops an integrated modeling framework to explore the factors that influence the adoption of on-demand mobility services and electric vehicle ownership while placing special emphasis on attitudes/perceptions. Results indicated that attitudes and values significantly affect the use of on-demand transportation services and electric vehicle ownership, suggesting that information campaigns and free trials/demonstrations would help advance towards the sustainable transportation future and decarbonize the transport sector. The integrated modeling framework is enhanced, in chapter four, to explore the interrelationship between transport and residential energy consumption. The findings indicated the existence of small but significant net complimentary relationships between transport and residential energy consumption. Additionally, the modeling framework enabled the comparison of energy consumption patterns across market segments. The resulting integrated transport and residential energy consumption model system is utilized, in chapter fifth, to shed light on the overall household energy footprint implications of shifting vehicle/fuel type choices. Results indicated that electric vehicles are driven as much as gasoline vehicles are. Interestingly, while an increase in residential energy consumption was observed with the wide-scale adoption of electric vehicles, the total household energy use decreased, indicating benefits associated with transportation electrification.

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Date Created
2021