Matching Items (12)

136002-Thumbnail Image.png

The Association of Cytoplasmic Molecules with Integrin During Bidirectional Signaling

Description

Platelets are specialized blood cells that play crucial role in normal physiologic and pathologic processes such as hemostasis, inflammation, wound healing, and host defense. Activation of platelets is essential for

Platelets are specialized blood cells that play crucial role in normal physiologic and pathologic processes such as hemostasis, inflammation, wound healing, and host defense. Activation of platelets is essential for platelet function and it includes a complex interplay of adhesion and intracellular signaling molecules. Platelets are known to be activated during vessel injury by a complex interaction of soluble agonists and once activated, they adhere to sub-endothelial matrix to aggregate and secrete granules leading to the formation of platelet aggregate that is necessary for thrombus formation. Platelet integrin plays a central role in platelet adhesive reactions by serving as a receptor for fibrinogen involved in bidirectional transmembrane signaling. In order to elucidate the interaction of integrin with cytoplasmic signaling molecules during inside-out and outside-in signaling, we have studied the kinetics of the recruitment of talin, kindling, filmin-A, skelemin, Scr and syk to the B3 cytoplasmic tails. Platelets were isolated from human blood and activated with ADP/Epinephrine for different times. The complexes of *** with signaling proteins were obtained by immunoprecipitation of platelet lysates with anit-*** monoclonal antibody and then analyzed by Western blotting using antibodies directed against selected signaling proteins. Our results show different kinetics in recruitment of signaling molecules to the B3 integrin cytoplasmic tail during inside-out and outside in signaling.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05

151620-Thumbnail Image.png

Functional and regulatory biomolecular networks organized by DNA nanostructures

Description

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate inter-molecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of other biomolecular networks to translate biochemical pathways to non-cellular environments. Presented here are a series of studies toward this application. First, a novel strategy utilized DNA origami as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multi-component systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures. Next, discrete glucose oxidase (GOx)/ horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme pairs were organized on DNA origami tiles with controlled interenzyme spacing and position. This study revealed two different distance-dependent kinetic processes associated with the assembled enzyme pairs. Finally, a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice was designed and constructed to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation were successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

155525-Thumbnail Image.png

Charge transport in single molecules

Description

Studying charge transport through single molecules is of great importance for unravelling charge transport mechanisms, investigating fundamentals of chemistry, and developing functional building blocks in molecular electronics.

First, a study of

Studying charge transport through single molecules is of great importance for unravelling charge transport mechanisms, investigating fundamentals of chemistry, and developing functional building blocks in molecular electronics.

First, a study of the thermoelectric effect in single DNA molecules is reported. By varying the molecular length and sequence, the charge transport in DNA was tuned to either a hopping- or tunneling-dominated regimes. In the hopping regime, the thermoelectric effect is small and insensitive to the molecular length. Meanwhile, in the tunneling regime, the thermoelectric effect is large and sensitive to the length. These findings indicate that by varying its sequence and length, the thermoelectric effect in DNA can be controlled. The experimental results are then described in terms of hopping and tunneling charge transport models.

Then, I showed that the electron transfer reaction of a single ferrocene molecule can be controlled with a mechanical force. I monitor the redox state of the molecule from its characteristic conductance, detect the switching events of the molecule from reduced to oxidized states with the force, and determine a negative shift of ~34 mV in the redox potential under force. The theoretical modeling is in good agreement with the observations, and reveals the role of the coupling between the electronic states and structure of the molecule.

Finally, conclusions and perspectives were discussed to point out the implications of the above works and future studies that can be performed based on the findings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154824-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of small molecule interactions in biological systems: the study of potential treatments for addiction and disease

Description

The ability to manipulate the interaction between small molecules and biological macromolecules towards the study of disease pathogenesis has become a very important part of research towards treatment options for

The ability to manipulate the interaction between small molecules and biological macromolecules towards the study of disease pathogenesis has become a very important part of research towards treatment options for various diseases. The work described here shows both the use of DNA oligonucleotides as carriers for a nicotine hapten small molecule, and the use of microsomes to study the stability of compounds derived to treat mitochondrial diseases.

Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic because nicotine is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It is linked to early death, typically in the form of heart or lung disease. A new vaccine conjugate against nicotine held within a DNA tetrahedron delivery system has been studied. For this purpose, several strands of DNA, conjugated with a modified dTpT having three or six carbon atom alkynyl linkers, have been synthesized. These strands have later been conjugated to three separate hapten small molecules to analyze which conjugates formed would be optimal for further testing in vivo.

Mitochondrial diseases are hard to treat, given that there are so many different variations to treat. There is no one compound that can treat all mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases; however, improvements can be made to compounds currently under study to improve the conditions of those afflicted. A significant issue leading to compounds failing in clinical trials is insufficient metabolic stability. Many compounds have good biological activity, but once introduced to an animal, are not stable enough to have any effect. Here, several synthesized compounds have been evaluated for metabolic stability, and several showed improved stability, while maintaining biological activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

154991-Thumbnail Image.png

Molecules for energy and charge transfer for biomimetic systems: synthesis, characterization and computational studies

Description

Sunlight, the most abundant source of energy available, is diffuse and intermittent; therefore it needs to be stored in chemicals bonds in order to be used any time. Photosynthesis converts

Sunlight, the most abundant source of energy available, is diffuse and intermittent; therefore it needs to be stored in chemicals bonds in order to be used any time. Photosynthesis converts sunlight into useful chemical energy that organisms can use for their functions. Artificial photosynthesis aims to use the essential chemistry of natural photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and convert it into fuels such as hydrogen gas. By splitting water, tandem photoelectrochemical solar cells (PESC) can produce hydrogen gas, which can be stored and used as fuel. Understanding the mechanisms of photosynthesis, such as photoinduced electron transfer, proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and energy transfer (singlet-singlet and triplet-triplet) can provide a detailed knowledge of those processes which can later be applied to the design of artificial photosynthetic systems. This dissertation has three main research projects. The first part focuses on design, synthesis and characterization of suitable photosensitizers for tandem cells. Different factors that can influence the performance of the photosensitizers in PESC and the attachment and use of a biomimetic electron relay to a water oxidation catalyst are explored. The second part studies PCET, using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and computational chemistry to elucidate the structure and stability of tautomers that comprise biomimetic electron relays, focusing on the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The third part of this dissertation uses computational calculations to understand triplet-triplet energy transfer and the mechanism of quenching of the excited singlet state of phthalocyanines in antenna models by covalently attached carotenoids.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153071-Thumbnail Image.png

Electromechanical properties of single molecule devices

Description

Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of single molecules is of fundamental importance for molecular electronics. The sensitivity of charge transport to mechanical fluctuations is a key

Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of single molecules is of fundamental importance for molecular electronics. The sensitivity of charge transport to mechanical fluctuations is a key problem in developing long lasting molecular devices. Furthermore, harnessing this response to mechanical perturbation, molecular devices which can be mechanically gated can be developed. This thesis demonstrates three examples of the unique electromechanical properties of single molecules.

First, the electromechanical properties of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecular junctions are investigate. Counterintuitively, the conductance of this molecule is found to increase by more than an order of magnitude when stretched. This conductance increase is found to be reversible when the molecular junction is compressed. The current-voltage, conductance-voltage and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy characteristics are used to attribute the conductance increase to a strain-induced shift in the frontier molecular orbital relative to the electrode Fermi level, leading to resonant enhancement in the conductance.

Next, the effect of stretching-induced structural changes on charge transport in DNA molecules is studied. The conductance of single DNA molecules with lengths varying from 6 to 26 base pairs is measured and found to follow a hopping transport mechanism. The conductance of DNA molecules is highly sensitive to mechanical stretching, showing an abrupt decrease in conductance at surprisingly short stretching distances, with weak dependence on DNA length. This abrupt conductance decrease is attributed to force-induced breaking of hydrogen bonds in the base pairs at the end of the DNA sequence.

Finally, the effect of small mechanical modulation of the base separation on DNA conductance is investigated. The sensitivity of conductance to mechanical modulation is studied for molecules of different sequence and length. Sequences with purine-purine stacking are found to be more responsive to modulation than purine-pyrimidine sequences. This sensitivity is attributed to the perturbation of &pi-&pi stacking interactions and resulting effects on the activation energy and electronic coupling for the end base pairs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

154306-Thumbnail Image.png

Measurements and control of charge transport through single DNA Molecules via STM break junction technique

Description

Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes. Studying their charge transport properties can help developing DNA based electronic devices

Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes. Studying their charge transport properties can help developing DNA based electronic devices with many tunable functionalities. This thesis investigates the electric properties of double-stranded DNA, DNA G-quadruplex and dsDNA with modified base.

First, double-stranded DNA with alternating GC sequence and stacked GC sequence were measured with respect to length. The resistance of DNA sequences increases linearly with length, indicating a hopping transport mechanism. However, for DNA sequences with stacked GC, a periodic oscillation is superimposed on the linear length dependence, indicating a partial coherent transport. The result is supported by the finding of delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of Guanines from theoretical simulation and by fitting based on the Büttiker’s theory.

Then, a DNA G4-duplex structures with a G-quadruplex as the core and DNA duplexes as the arms were studied. Similar conductance values were observed by varying the linker positions, thus a charge splitter is developed. The conductance of the DNA G-tetrads structures was found to be sensitive to the π-stacking at the interface between the G-quadruplex and DNA duplexes by observing a higher conductance value when one duplex was removed and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker was added into the interface. This was further supported by molecular dynamic simulations.

Finally, a double-stranded DNA with one of the bases replaced by an anthraquinone group was studied via electrochemical STM break junction technique. Anthraquinone can be reversibly switched into the oxidized state or reduced state, to give a low conductance or high conductance respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the switching were systematically studied. Theoretical simulation shows that the difference between the two states is due to a difference in the energy alignment with neighboring Guanine bases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

152677-Thumbnail Image.png

Organic optoelectronic devices employing small molecules

Description

Organic optoelectronic devices have remained a research topic of great interest over the past two decades, particularly in the development of efficient organic photovoltaics (OPV) and organic light emitting diodes

Organic optoelectronic devices have remained a research topic of great interest over the past two decades, particularly in the development of efficient organic photovoltaics (OPV) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). In order to improve the efficiency, stability, and materials variety for organic optoelectronic devices a number of emitting materials, absorbing materials, and charge transport materials were developed and employed in a device setting. Optical, electrical, and photophysical studies of the organic materials and their corresponding devices were thoroughly carried out. Two major approaches were taken to enhance the efficiency of small molecule based OPVs: developing material with higher open circuit voltages or improved device structures which increased short circuit current. To explore the factors affecting the open circuit voltage (VOC) in OPVs, molecular structures were modified to bring VOC closer to the effective bandgap, ∆EDA, which allowed the achievement of 1V VOC for a heterojunction of a select Ir complex with estimated exciton energy of only 1.55eV. Furthermore, the development of anode interfacial layer for exciton blocking and molecular templating provide a general approach for enhancing the short circuit current. Ultimately, a 5.8% PCE was achieved in a single heterojunction of C60 and a ZnPc material prepared in a simple, one step, solvent free, synthesis. OLEDs employing newly developed deep blue emitters based on cyclometalated complexes were demonstrated. Ultimately, a peak EQE of 24.8% and nearly perfect blue emission of (0.148,0.079) was achieved from PtON7dtb, which approaches the maximum attainable performance from a blue OLED. Furthermore, utilizing the excimer formation properties of square-planar Pt complexes, highly efficient and stable white devices employing a single emissive material were demonstrated. A peak EQE of over 20% for pure white color (0.33,0.33) and 80 CRI was achieved with the tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16. Furthermore, the development of a series of tetradentate Pt complexes yielded highly efficient and stable single doped white devices due to their halogen free tetradentate design. In addition to these benchmark achievements, the systematic molecular modification of both emissive and absorbing materials provides valuable structure-property relationship information that should help guide further developments in the field.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152848-Thumbnail Image.png

Application of recognition tunneling in single molecule identification

Description

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. The distinct time domain and frequency domain features of tunneling signals were extracted from raw signals of analytes such as amino acids and their enantiomers. The Support Vector Machine (a machine-learning method) was used to do classification and predication based on the signal features generated by analytes, giving over 90% accuracy of separation of up to seven analytes. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid Peptide/DNA sequencing and molecule identification at single molecule level.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153338-Thumbnail Image.png

Small molecule probes for studying cellular receptors and enzymes

Description

Small molecules have proven to be very important tools for exploration of biological systems including diagnosis and treatment of lethal diseases like cancer. Fluorescent probes have been extensively used to

Small molecules have proven to be very important tools for exploration of biological systems including diagnosis and treatment of lethal diseases like cancer. Fluorescent probes have been extensively used to further amplify the utilization of small molecules. The manipulation of naturally occurring biological targets with the help of synthetic compounds is the focus of the work described in this thesis.

Bleomycins (BLMs) are a class of water soluble, glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consisting of a structurally complicated unnatural hexapeptide and a disaccharide, clinically used as an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent at an exceptionally low therapeutic dose. The efficiency of BLM is likely achieved both by selective localization within tumor cells and selective binding to DNA followed by efficient double-strand cleavage. The disaccharide moiety is responsible for the tumor cell targeting properties of BLM. A recent study showed that both BLM and its disaccharide, conjugated to the cyanine dye Cy5**, bound selectively to cancer cells. Thus, the disaccharide moiety alone recapitulates the tumor cell targeting properties of BLM. Work presented here describes the synthesis of the fluorescent carbohydrate conjugates. A number of dye-labeled modified disaccharides and monosaccharides were synthesized to study the nature of the participation of the carbamoyl moiety in the mechanism of tumor cell recognition and uptake by BLM saccharides. It was demonstrated that the carbamoylmannose moiety of BLM is the smallest structural entity capable for the cellular targeting and internalization, and the carbamoyl functionality is indispensible for tumor cell targeting. It was also confirmed that BLM is a modular molecule, composed of a tumor cell targeting moiety (the saccharide) attached to a cytotoxic DNA cleaving domain (the BLM aglycone). These finding encouraged us to further synthesize carbohydrate probes for PET imaging and to conjugate the saccharide moiety with cytotoxins for targeted delivery to tumor cells.

The misacylated suppressor tRNA technique has enabled the site-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into proteins. The focus of the present work was the synthesis of unnatural lysine analogues with nucleophilic properties for incorporation at position 72 of the lyase domain of human DNA polymerase beta, a multifunctional enzyme with dRP lyase and polymerase activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014