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Tunneling Time in Quantum Mechanics

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The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A calculation of the dwell time for two successive rectangular barriers

The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A calculation of the dwell time for two successive rectangular barriers in the opaque limit is given and the result depends on the barrier widths and hence does not lead to superluminal tunneling or the Hartman effect.

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2009-05

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Spin Transport in Metallic Films with Strong Spin-Orbital Coupling

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In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently,

In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently, thermal effects in magnetic materials have attracted a great deal of attention because of its potential to generate pure spin currents using a thermal gradient (∇T), such as the spin Seebeck effect. However, unlike electric potential, the exact thermal gradient direction is experimentally difficult to control, which has already caused misinterpretation of the thermal effects in Py and Py/Pt films. In this work, we show that a well-defined ∇T can be created by two thermoelectric coolers (TECs) based on Peltier effect. The ∇T as well as its sign can be accurately controlled by the driven voltage on the TECs. Using a square-wave driven potential, thermal effects of a few μV can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the anomalous Nernst effect in magnetic Co/Py and Py/Pt layers and determined their angular dependence. The angular dependence shows the same symmetry as the anomalous Hall effect in these films.
This work has been carried out under the guidance of the author’s thesis advisor, Professor Tingyong Chen.

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2015-05

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Branching Worlds: Quantum Mechanics and Hugh Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation

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This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the history of quantum theory, and some concepts that make u

This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the history of quantum theory, and some concepts that make up the framework of quantum physics. Through these concepts, we reveal why interpretations are necessary to map the quantum world onto our classical world. We then introduce the Copenhagen interpretation, and how many-worlds differs from it. From there, we dive into the concepts of entanglement and decoherence, explaining how worlds branch in an Everettian universe, and how an Everettian universe can appear as our classical observed world. From there, we attempt to answer common questions about many-worlds and discuss whether there are philosophical ramifications to believing such a theory. Finally, we look at whether the many-worlds interpretation can be proven, and why one might choose to believe it.

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2021-05

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Entanglement, Locality, and Hidden Variables

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The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement and non-locality, this paper will use the Bell Test as

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement and non-locality, this paper will use the Bell Test as a means for demonstrating how entanglement works, which measures the behavior of electrons whose combined internal angular momentum is zero. This paper will go over Dr. Bell's famous inequality, which shows why the process of entanglement cannot be explained by traditional means of local processes. Entanglement will be viewed initially through the Copenhagen Interpretation, but this paper will also look at two particular models of quantum mechanics, de-Broglie Bohm theory and Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation, and observe how they explain the behavior of spin and entangled particles compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation.

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2021-05

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Pulse Sequence Programming for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Deuterium Imaging and Glioblastoma Detection

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Glioblastoma brain tumors are among the most lethal human cancers. Treatment efforts typically involve both surgical tumor removal, as well as ongoing therapy. In this work, we propose the use of deuterium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate tumor boundaries

Glioblastoma brain tumors are among the most lethal human cancers. Treatment efforts typically involve both surgical tumor removal, as well as ongoing therapy. In this work, we propose the use of deuterium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate tumor boundaries based on spatial distributions of deuterated leucine, as well as resolve the metabolism of leucine within the tumor. Accurate boundary identification contributes to effectiveness of tumor removal efforts, while amino acid metabolism information may help characterize tumor malignancy and guide ongoing treatment. So, we first examine the fundamental mechanisms of deuterium MRI. We then discuss the use of spin-echo and gradient recall echo sequences for mapping spatial distributions of deuterated leucine, and the use of single-voxel spectroscopy for imaging metabolites within a tumor.

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2022-05

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C*-Algebra in Quantum Mechanics: Proving the Limitations of Our Typical Representations and the Need for C*-Algebra

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In thesis we will build up our operator theory for finite and infinite dimensional systems. We then prove that Heisenberg and Schrodinger representations are equivalent for systems with finite degrees of freedom. We will then make a case to switch

In thesis we will build up our operator theory for finite and infinite dimensional systems. We then prove that Heisenberg and Schrodinger representations are equivalent for systems with finite degrees of freedom. We will then make a case to switch to a C*-algebra formulation of quantum mechanics as we will prove that the Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures become inadequate to full describe systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom because of inequivalent representations. This becomes important as we shift from single particle systems to quantum field theory, statistical mechanics, and many other areas of study. The goal of this thesis is to introduce these mathematical topics rigorously and prove that they are necessary for further study in particle physics.

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2022-05

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Examining the Mathematical Formalism of Quantum Mechanics

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This is a primer on the mathematic foundation of quantum mechanics. It seeks to introduce the topic in such a way that it is useful to both mathematicians and physicists by providing an extended example of abstract math concepts to

This is a primer on the mathematic foundation of quantum mechanics. It seeks to introduce the topic in such a way that it is useful to both mathematicians and physicists by providing an extended example of abstract math concepts to work through and by going more in-depth in the math formalism than would normally be covered in a quantum mechanics class. The thesis begins by investigating functional analysis topics such as the Hilbert space and operators acting on them. Then it goes on to the postulates of quantum mechanics which extends the math formalism covered before to physics and works as the foundation for the rest of quantum mechanics.

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2022-05