Matching Items (5)

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Spin Transport in Metallic Films with Strong Spin-Orbital Coupling

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In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power

In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently, thermal effects in magnetic materials have attracted a great deal of attention because of its potential to generate pure spin currents using a thermal gradient (∇T), such as the spin Seebeck effect. However, unlike electric potential, the exact thermal gradient direction is experimentally difficult to control, which has already caused misinterpretation of the thermal effects in Py and Py/Pt films. In this work, we show that a well-defined ∇T can be created by two thermoelectric coolers (TECs) based on Peltier effect. The ∇T as well as its sign can be accurately controlled by the driven voltage on the TECs. Using a square-wave driven potential, thermal effects of a few μV can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the anomalous Nernst effect in magnetic Co/Py and Py/Pt layers and determined their angular dependence. The angular dependence shows the same symmetry as the anomalous Hall effect in these films.
This work has been carried out under the guidance of the author’s thesis advisor, Professor Tingyong Chen.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Tunneling Time in Quantum Mechanics

Description

The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A

The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A calculation of the dwell time for two successive rectangular barriers in the opaque limit is given and the result depends on the barrier widths and hence does not lead to superluminal tunneling or the Hartman effect.

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Date Created
  • 2009-05

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Entanglement, Locality, and Hidden Variables

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The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement and non-locality, this paper will use the Bell Test as a means for demonstrating how entanglement works, which measures the behavior of electrons whose combined internal angular momentum is zero. This paper will go over Dr. Bell's famous inequality, which shows why the process of entanglement cannot be explained by traditional means of local processes. Entanglement will be viewed initially through the Copenhagen Interpretation, but this paper will also look at two particular models of quantum mechanics, de-Broglie Bohm theory and Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation, and observe how they explain the behavior of spin and entangled particles compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Branching Worlds: Quantum Mechanics and Hugh Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation

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This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the

This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the history of quantum theory, and some concepts that make up the framework of quantum physics. Through these concepts, we reveal why interpretations are necessary to map the quantum world onto our classical world. We then introduce the Copenhagen interpretation, and how many-worlds differs from it. From there, we dive into the concepts of entanglement and decoherence, explaining how worlds branch in an Everettian universe, and how an Everettian universe can appear as our classical observed world. From there, we attempt to answer common questions about many-worlds and discuss whether there are philosophical ramifications to believing such a theory. Finally, we look at whether the many-worlds interpretation can be proven, and why one might choose to believe it.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Pauli-Lubanski Vector in a Group-Theoretical Approach to Relativistic Wave Equations

Description

Chapter 1 introduces some key elements of important topics such as; quantum mechanics,

representation theory of the Lorentz and Poincare groups, and a review of some basic rela- ´

tivistic wave equations

Chapter 1 introduces some key elements of important topics such as; quantum mechanics,

representation theory of the Lorentz and Poincare groups, and a review of some basic rela- ´

tivistic wave equations that will play an important role in the work to follow. In Chapter 2,

a complex covariant form of the classical Maxwell’s equations in a moving medium or at

rest is introduced. In addition, a compact, Lorentz invariant, form of the energy-momentum

tensor is derived. In chapter 3, the concept of photon helicity is critically analyzed and its

connection with the Pauli-Lubanski vector from the viewpoint of the complex electromag- ´

netic field, E+ iH. To this end, a complex covariant form of Maxwell’s equations is used.

Chapter 4 analyzes basic relativistic wave equations for the classical fields, such as Dirac’s

equation, Weyl’s two-component equation for massless neutrinos and the Proca, Maxwell

and Fierz-Pauli equations, from the viewpoint of the Pauli-Lubanski vector and the Casimir ´

operators of the Poincare group. A connection between the spin of a particle/field and ´

consistency of the corresponding overdetermined system is emphasized in the massless

case. Chapter 5 focuses on the so-called generalized quantum harmonic oscillator, which

is a Schrodinger equation with a time-varying quadratic Hamiltonian operator. The time ¨

evolution of exact wave functions of the generalized harmonic oscillators is determined

in terms of the solutions of certain Ermakov and Riccati-type systems. In addition, it is

shown that the classical Arnold transform is naturally connected with Ehrenfest’s theorem

for generalized harmonic oscillators. In Chapter 6, as an example of the usefulness of the

methods introduced in Chapter 5 a model for the quantization of an electromagnetic field

in a variable media is analyzed. The concept of quantization of an electromagnetic field

in factorizable media is discussed via the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. A single mode

of radiation for this model is used to find time-dependent photon amplitudes in relation

to Fock states. A multi-parameter family of the squeezed states, photon statistics, and the

uncertainty relation, are explicitly given in terms of the Ermakov-type system.

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Date Created
  • 2016