Matching Items (5)

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Tunneling Time in Quantum Mechanics

Description

The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A

The longstanding issue of how much time it takes a particle to tunnel through quantum barriers is discussed; in particular, the phenomenon known as the Hartman effect is reviewed. A calculation of the dwell time for two successive rectangular barriers in the opaque limit is given and the result depends on the barrier widths and hence does not lead to superluminal tunneling or the Hartman effect.

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Date Created
  • 2009-05

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Pilot tube microtunneling: profile of an emerging industry

Description

Trenchless technologies have emerged as a viable alternative to traditional open trench methods for installing underground pipelines and conduits. Pilot Tube Microtunneling, also referred to as the pilot tube system

Trenchless technologies have emerged as a viable alternative to traditional open trench methods for installing underground pipelines and conduits. Pilot Tube Microtunneling, also referred to as the pilot tube system of microtunneling, guided auger boring, or guided boring method, is a recent addition to the family of trenchless installation methods. Pilot tube microtunneling originated in Japan and Europe, and was introduced to the United States in the year 1995 (Boschert 2007). Since then this methodology has seen increased utilization across North America particularity in municipal markets for the installation of gravity sewers. The primary reason contributing to the growth of pilot tube microtunneling is the technology's capability of installing pipes at high precision in terms of line and grade, in a wide range of ground conditions using relatively inexpensive equipment. The means and methods, applicability, capabilities and limitations of pilot tube microtunneling are well documented in published literature through many project specific case studies. However, there is little information on the macroscopic level regarding the technology and industry as a whole. With the increasing popularity of pilot tube microtunneling, there is an emerging need to address the above issues. This research effort surveyed 22 pilot tube microtunneling contractors across North America to determine the current industry state of practice with the technology. The survey examined various topics including contractor profile and experience; equipment, methods, and pipe materials utilized; and issues pertaining to project planning and construction risks associated with the pilot tube method. The findings of this research are based on a total of 450 projects completed with pilot tube microtunneling between 2006 and 2010. The respondents were diverse in terms of their experience with PTMT, ranging from two to 11 years. A majority of the respondents have traditionally provided services with other trenchless technologies. As revealed by the survey responses, PTMT projects grew by 110% between the years 2006 and 2010. It was found that almost 72% of the 450 PTMT projects completed between 2006 and 2010 by the respondents were for sanitary sewers. Installation in cobbles and boulders was rated as the highest risk by the contractors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Pilot tube microtunneling: instrumentation and monitoring for jacking force and productivity analysis

Description

Trenchless technology is a group of techniques whose utilization allows for the installation, rehabilitation, and repair of underground infrastructure with minimal excavation from the ground surface. As the built environment

Trenchless technology is a group of techniques whose utilization allows for the installation, rehabilitation, and repair of underground infrastructure with minimal excavation from the ground surface. As the built environment becomes more congested, projects are trending towards using trenchless technologies for their ability to quickly produce a quality product with minimal environmental and social costs. Pilot tube microtunneling (PTMT) is a trenchless technology where new pipelines may be installed at accurate and precise line and grade over manhole to manhole distances. The PTMT process can vary to a certain degree, but typically involves the following three phases: jacking of the pilot tube string to achieve line and grade, jacking of casing along the pilot bore and rotation of augers to excavate the borehole to a diameter slightly larger than the product pipe, and jacking of product pipe directly behind the last casing. Knowledge of the expected productivity rates and jacking forces during a PTMT installation are valuable tools that can be used for properly weighing its usefulness versus competing technologies and minimizing risks associated with PTMT. This thesis outlines the instrumentation and monitoring process used to record jacking frame hydraulic pressures from seven PTMT installations. Cyclic patterns in the data can be detected, indicating the installation of a single pipe segment, and enabling productivity rates for each PTMT phase to be determined. Furthermore, specific operations within a cycle, such as pushing a pipe or retracting the machine, can be observed, allowing for identification of the critical tasks associated with each phase. By identifying the critical tasks and developing more efficient means for their completion, PTMT productivity can be increased and costs can be reduced. Additionally, variations in depth of cover, drive length, pipe diameter, and localized ground conditions allowed for trends in jacking forces to be identified. To date, jacking force predictive models for PTMT are non-existent. Thus, jacking force data was compared to existing predictive models developed for the closely related pipe jacking and microtunneling methodologies, and the applicability of their adoption for PTMT jacking force prediction was explored.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Application of recognition tunneling in single molecule identification

Description

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. The distinct time domain and frequency domain features of tunneling signals were extracted from raw signals of analytes such as amino acids and their enantiomers. The Support Vector Machine (a machine-learning method) was used to do classification and predication based on the signal features generated by analytes, giving over 90% accuracy of separation of up to seven analytes. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid Peptide/DNA sequencing and molecule identification at single molecule level.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Recognition tunneling: approaches towards next generation DNA sequencing

Description

This thesis describes several approaches to next generation DNA sequencing via tunneling current method based on a Scanning Tunneling Microscope system. In chapters 5 and 6, preliminary results have shown

This thesis describes several approaches to next generation DNA sequencing via tunneling current method based on a Scanning Tunneling Microscope system. In chapters 5 and 6, preliminary results have shown that DNA bases could be identified by their characteristic tunneling signals. Measurements taken in aqueous buffered solution showed that single base resolution could be achieved with economic setups. In chapter 7, it is illustrated that some ongoing measurements are indicating the sequence readout by making linear scan on a piece of short DNA oligomer. However, to overcome the difficulties of controlling DNA especially ssDNA movement, it is much better to have the tunneling measurement incorporated onto a robust nanopore device to realize sequential reading of the DNA sequence while it is being translocated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011