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Everyday Functioning in Individuals with Psychotic-like Experiences: Information Gleaned from Friends and Family

Description

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs.

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs. The purpose of this study was to compare everyday functioning of people with and without PLEs. Participants were 108 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course who were selected for participation in the study because they scored in the top and bottom 10% of a screening test for PLEs. Informants were emailed questionnaires and asked to report on the participants' functioning in three domains: interpersonal functioning, disorganized behavior, and cognitive-perceptual functioning. Informants also reported on participants' attention and memory problems. Results showed that, consistent with prior research, individuals high in PLEs were from lower SES families and reported more depression, anxiety, and substance use. Moreover, informants for participants high in PLEs reported more unusual/disorganized behavior than informants for participants low in PLEs. No differences were observed between individuals high versus low in PLEs for informant-reported interpersonal functioning and attention and memory problems, however. Findings suggest that noticeable difficulties among individuals with PLEs are limited to disorganized behavior. More research is needed to determine the functional consequences of disorganized behavior among individuals with PLEs.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Cannabis use, psychotic-like experiences, and vascular risk in young adults

Description

There is a robust association between psychosis and cannabis use, but the mechanisms underlying this relation are poorly understood. Because both psychosis and cannabis use have been linked to cardiovascular

There is a robust association between psychosis and cannabis use, but the mechanisms underlying this relation are poorly understood. Because both psychosis and cannabis use have been linked to cardiovascular problems, it is possible that cannabis use exacerbates an underlying vascular vulnerability in individuals prone to psychosis. To investigate microvascular differences in individuals with psychotic symptoms and cannabis use, the current study tested associations between psychotic-like experiences, cannabis use, and retinal vessel diameter in 101 young adults (mean age=19.37 years [SD=1.93]). Retinal venular diameter did not differ between participants with (M=218.08, SD=15.09) and without psychotic-like experiences (M=216.61, SD=16.18) (F(1, 97)=0.01, p=.93) or between cannabis users (M=218.41, SD=14.31) and non-users (M=216.95, SD=16.26) (F(1, 97)=0.37, p=.54). Likewise, mean retinal arteriolar diameter did not differ between participants with (M=157.07, SD=10.96) and without psychotic-like experiences (M=154.88, SD=9.03) (F(1, 97)=0.00, p=.97). However, cannabis users had statistically significantly wider retinal arterioles (M=159.10, SD=9.94) than did non-users (M=154.29, SD=10.20) (F(1, 97)=5.99, p=.016), and this effect was robust to control for covariates. There was no evidence of an interaction between psychotic-like experiences and cannabis use in predicting retinal vessel diameter. These results indicate that cannabis use is associated with microvascular differences in young adulthood. Given current trends toward legalization of recreational cannabis use, future research should explore these differences and their potential consequences for cardiovascular health.

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Date Created
  • 2016