Matching Items (16)

136382-Thumbnail Image.png

Improving damage detection and localization in complex composites

Description

The goal of this research is to couple a physics-based model with adaptive algorithms to develop a more accurate and robust technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) in composite structures.

The goal of this research is to couple a physics-based model with adaptive algorithms to develop a more accurate and robust technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) in composite structures. The purpose of SHM is to localize and detect damage in structures, which has broad applications to improvements in aerospace technology. This technique employs PZT transducers to actuate and collect guided Lamb wave signals. Matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) is used to decompose the signal into a cross-term free time-frequency relation. This decoupling of time and frequency facilitates the calculation of a signal's time-of-flight along a path between an actuator and sensor. Using the time-of-flights, comparisons can be made between similar composite structures to find damaged regions by examining differences in the time of flight for each path between PZTs, with respect to direction. Relatively large differences in time-of-flight indicate the presence of new or more significant damage, which can be verified using a physics-based approach. Wave propagation modeling is used to implement a physics based approach to this method, which is coupled with adaptive algorithms that take into account currently existing damage to a composite structure. Previous SHM techniques for composite structures rely on the assumption that the composite is initially free of all damage on both a macro and micro-scale, which is never the case due to the inherent introduction of material defects in its fabrication. This method provides a novel technique for investigating the presence and nature of damage in composite structures. Further investigation into the technique can be done by testing structures with different sizes of damage and investigating the effects of different operating temperatures on this SHM system.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

135845-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural Health Monitoring of Fiber Reinforced Composite Structures under High Velocity Impact Loads

Description

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates,

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates, and evaluating the damage post-impact. To this end, various non-destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan testing and flash thermography were utilized for post-impact analysis. MATLAB algorithms were written and refined for the localization and quantification of damage in plates using data from sensors such as piezoelectric and fiber Bragg gratings sensors. Throughout the thesis, the general plate theory and laminate plate theory, the operations and optimization of the gas gun, and the theory used for the damage localization algorithms will be discussed. Additional quantifiable results are to come in future semesters of experimentation, but this thesis outlines the framework upon which all the research will continue to advance.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

136138-Thumbnail Image.png

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UNDER HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

Description

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates,

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates, and evaluating the damage post-impact. To this end, various non-destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan testing and flash thermography were utilized for post-impact analysis. MATLAB algorithms were written and refined for the localization and quantification of damage in plates using data from sensors such as piezoelectric and fiber Bragg gratings sensors. Throughout the thesis, the general plate theory and laminate plate theory, the operations and optimization of the gas gun, and the theory used for the damage localization algorithms will be discussed. Additional quantifiable results are to come in future semesters of experimentation, but this thesis outlines the framework upon which all the research will continue to advance.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

152982-Thumbnail Image.png

Multiscale modeling of heterogeneous material systems

Description

Damage detection in heterogeneous material systems is a complex problem and requires an in-depth understanding of the material characteristics and response under varying load and environmental conditions. A significant amount

Damage detection in heterogeneous material systems is a complex problem and requires an in-depth understanding of the material characteristics and response under varying load and environmental conditions. A significant amount of research has been conducted in this field to enhance the fidelity of damage assessment methodologies, using a wide range of sensors and detection techniques, for both metallic materials and composites. However, detecting damage at the microscale is not possible with commercially available sensors. A probable way to approach this problem is through accurate and efficient multiscale modeling techniques, which are capable of tracking damage initiation at the microscale and propagation across the length scales. The output from these models will provide an improved understanding of damage initiation; the knowledge can be used in conjunction with information from physical sensors to improve the size of detectable damage. In this research, effort has been dedicated to develop multiscale modeling approaches and associated damage criteria for the estimation of damage evolution across the relevant length scales. Important issues such as length and time scales, anisotropy and variability in material properties at the microscale, and response under mechanical and thermal loading are addressed. Two different material systems have been studied: metallic material and a novel stress-sensitive epoxy polymer.

For metallic material (Al 2024-T351), the methodology initiates at the microscale where extensive material characterization is conducted to capture the microstructural variability. A statistical volume element (SVE) model is constructed to represent the material properties. Geometric and crystallographic features including grain orientation, misorientation, size, shape, principal axis direction and aspect ratio are captured. This SVE model provides a computationally efficient alternative to traditional techniques using representative volume element (RVE) models while maintaining statistical accuracy. A physics based multiscale damage criterion is developed to simulate the fatigue crack initiation. The crack growth rate and probable directions are estimated simultaneously.

Mechanically sensitive materials that exhibit specific chemical reactions upon external loading are currently being investigated for self-sensing applications. The "smart" polymer modeled in this research consists of epoxy resin, hardener, and a stress-sensitive material called mechanophore The mechanophore activation is based on covalent bond-breaking induced by external stimuli; this feature can be used for material-level damage detections. In this work Tris-(Cinnamoyl oxymethyl)-Ethane (TCE) is used as the cyclobutane-based mechanophore (stress-sensitive) material in the polymer matrix. The TCE embedded polymers have shown promising results in early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence. A spring-bead based network model, which bridges nanoscale information to higher length scales, has been developed to model this material system. The material is partitioned into discrete mass beads which are linked using linear springs at the microscale. A series of MD simulations were performed to define the spring stiffness in the statistical network model. By integrating multiple spring-bead models a network model has been developed to represent the material properties at the mesoscale. The model captures the statistical distribution of crosslinking degree of the polymer to represent the heterogeneous material properties at the microscale. The developed multiscale methodology is computationally efficient and provides a possible means to bridge multiple length scales (from 10 nm in MD simulation to 10 mm in FE model) without significant loss of accuracy. Parametric studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the crosslinking degree on the material behavior. The developed methodology has been used to evaluate damage evolution in the self-sensing polymer.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

154595-Thumbnail Image.png

Feature and statistical model development in structural health monitoring

Description

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects.

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development.

The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally.

Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering.

The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network, are trained and utilized to interpret nonlinear far-field wave patterns.

Next, a novel bridge scour estimation approach that comprises advantages of both empirical and data-driven models is developed. Two field datasets from the literature are used, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine-learning algorithm, is used to fuse the field data samples and classify the data with physical phenomena. The Fast Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is evaluated on the model performance objective functions to search for Pareto optimal fronts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

154829-Thumbnail Image.png

Systems health management and prognosis using physics based modeling and machine learning

Description

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of various platforms including aerospace and civil infrastructure. The implementation of a robust SHM system requires a collaborative effort in a variety of areas such as sensor development, damage detection and localization, physics based models, and prognosis models for residual useful life (RUL) estimation. Damage localization and prediction is further complicated by geometric, material, loading, and environmental variabilities. Therefore, it is essential to develop robust SHM methodologies by taking into account such uncertainties. In this research, damage localization and RUL estimation of two different physical systems are addressed: (i) fatigue crack propagation in metallic materials under complex multiaxial loading and (ii) temporal scour prediction near bridge piers. With little modifications, the methodologies developed can be applied to other systems.

Current practice in fatigue life prediction is based on either physics based modeling or data-driven methods, and is limited to predicting RUL for simple geometries under uniaxial loading conditions. In this research, crack initiation and propagation behavior under uniaxial and complex biaxial fatigue loading is addressed. The crack propagation behavior is studied by performing extensive material characterization and fatigue testing under in-plane biaxial loading, both in-phase and out-of-phase, with different biaxiality ratios. A hybrid prognosis model, which combines machine learning with physics based modeling, is developed to account for the uncertainties in crack propagation and fatigue life prediction due to variabilities in material microstructural characteristics, crack localization information and environmental changes. The methodology iteratively combines localization information with hybrid prognosis models using sequential Bayesian techniques. The results show significant improvements in the localization and prediction accuracy under varying temperature.

For civil infrastructure, especially bridges, pier scour is a major failure mechanism. Currently available techniques are developed from a design perspective and provide highly conservative scour estimates. In this research, a fully probabilistic scour prediction methodology is developed using machine learning to accurately predict scour in real-time under varying flow conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

151455-Thumbnail Image.png

Advances in micromechanics modeling of composites structures for structural health monitoring

Description

Although high performance, light-weight composites are increasingly being used in applications ranging from aircraft, rotorcraft, weapon systems and ground vehicles, the assurance of structural reliability remains a critical issue. In

Although high performance, light-weight composites are increasingly being used in applications ranging from aircraft, rotorcraft, weapon systems and ground vehicles, the assurance of structural reliability remains a critical issue. In composites, damage is absorbed through various fracture processes, including fiber failure, matrix cracking and delamination. An important element in achieving reliable composite systems is a strong capability of assessing and inspecting physical damage of critical structural components. Installation of a robust Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system would be very valuable in detecting the onset of composite failure. A number of major issues still require serious attention in connection with the research and development aspects of sensor-integrated reliable SHM systems for composite structures. In particular, the sensitivity of currently available sensor systems does not allow detection of micro level damage; this limits the capability of data driven SHM systems. As a fundamental layer in SHM, modeling can provide in-depth information on material and structural behavior for sensing and detection, as well as data for learning algorithms. This dissertation focusses on the development of a multiscale analysis framework, which is used to detect various forms of damage in complex composite structures. A generalized method of cells based micromechanics analysis, as implemented in NASA's MAC/GMC code, is used for the micro-level analysis. First, a baseline study of MAC/GMC is performed to determine the governing failure theories that best capture the damage progression. The deficiencies associated with various layups and loading conditions are addressed. In most micromechanics analysis, a representative unit cell (RUC) with a common fiber packing arrangement is used. The effect of variation in this arrangement within the RUC has been studied and results indicate this variation influences the macro-scale effective material properties and failure stresses. The developed model has been used to simulate impact damage in a composite beam and an airfoil structure. The model data was verified through active interrogation using piezoelectric sensors. The multiscale model was further extended to develop a coupled damage and wave attenuation model, which was used to study different damage states such as fiber-matrix debonding in composite structures with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

157108-Thumbnail Image.png

Health management and prognostics of complex structures and systems

Description

This dissertation presents the development of structural health monitoring and prognostic health management methodologies for complex structures and systems in the field of mechanical engineering. To overcome various challenges historically

This dissertation presents the development of structural health monitoring and prognostic health management methodologies for complex structures and systems in the field of mechanical engineering. To overcome various challenges historically associated with complex structures and systems such as complicated sensing mechanisms, noisy information, and large-size datasets, a hybrid monitoring framework comprising of solid mechanics concepts and data mining technologies is developed. In such a framework, the solid mechanics simulations provide additional intuitions to data mining techniques reducing the dependence of accuracy on the training set, while the data mining approaches fuse and interpret information from the targeted system enabling the capability for real-time monitoring with efficient computation.

In the case of structural health monitoring, ultrasonic guided waves are utilized for damage identification and localization in complex composite structures. Signal processing and data mining techniques are integrated into the damage localization framework, and the converted wave modes, which are induced by the thickness variation due to the presence of delamination, are used as damage indicators. This framework has been validated through experiments and has shown sufficient accuracy in locating delamination in X-COR sandwich composites without the need of baseline information. Besides the localization of internal damage, the Gaussian process machine learning technique is integrated with finite element method as an online-offline prediction model to predict crack propagation with overloads under biaxial loading conditions; such a probabilistic prognosis model, with limited number of training examples, has shown increased accuracy over state-of-the-art techniques in predicting crack retardation behaviors induced by overloads. In the case of system level management, a monitoring framework built using a multivariate Gaussian model as basis is developed to evaluate the anomalous condition of commercial aircrafts. This method has been validated using commercial airline data and has shown high sensitivity to variations in aircraft dynamics and pilot operations. Moreover, this framework was also tested on simulated aircraft faults and its feasibility for real-time monitoring was demonstrated with sufficient computation efficiency.

This research is expected to serve as a practical addition to the existing literature while possessing the potential to be adopted in realistic engineering applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

150833-Thumbnail Image.png

Damage detection in blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panels using lamb wave mode conversions

Description

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such as delamination or matrix cracks, can significantly compromise the performance of these materials and result in premature failure. Structural components are often manually inspected to detect the presence of damage. This technique, known as schedule based maintenance, however, is expensive, time-consuming, and often limited to easily accessible structural elements. Therefore, there is an increased demand for robust and efficient Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques that can be used for Condition Based Monitoring, which is the method in which structural components are inspected based upon damage metrics as opposed to flight hours. SHM relies on in situ frameworks for detecting early signs of damage in exposed and unexposed structural elements, offering not only reduced number of schedule based inspections, but also providing better useful life estimates. SHM frameworks require the development of different sensing technologies, algorithms, and procedures to detect, localize, quantify, characterize, as well as assess overall damage in aerospace structures so that strong estimations in the remaining useful life can be determined. The use of piezoelectric transducers along with guided Lamb waves is a method that has received considerable attention due to the weight, cost, and function of the systems based on these elements. The research in this thesis investigates the ability of Lamb waves to detect damage in feature dense anisotropic composite panels. Most current research negates the effects of experimental variability by performing tests on structurally simple isotropic plates that are used as a baseline and damaged specimen. However, in actual applications, variability cannot be negated, and therefore there is a need to research the effects of complex sample geometries, environmental operating conditions, and the effects of variability in material properties. This research is based on experiments conducted on a single blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panel that localizes delamination damage caused by impact. The overall goal was to utilize a correlative approach that used only the damage feature produced by the delamination as the damage index. This approach was adopted because it offered a simplistic way to determine the existence and location of damage without having to conduct a more complex wave propagation analysis or having to take into account the geometric complexities of the test specimen. Results showed that even in a complex structure, if the damage feature can be extracted and measured, then an appropriate damage index can be associated to it and the location of the damage can be inferred using a dense sensor array. The second experiment presented in this research studies the effects of temperature on damage detection when using one test specimen for a benchmark data set and another for damage data collection. This expands the previous experiment into exploring not only the effects of variable temperature, but also the effects of high experimental variability. Results from this work show that the damage feature in the data is not only extractable at higher temperatures, but that the data from one panel at one temperature can be directly compared to another panel at another temperature for baseline comparison due to linearity of the collected data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

157030-Thumbnail Image.png

Fast forward and inverse wave propagation for tomographic imaging of defects in solids

Description

Aging-related damage and failure in structures, such as fatigue cracking, corrosion, and delamination, are critical for structural integrity. Most engineering structures have embedded defects such as voids, cracks, inclusions from

Aging-related damage and failure in structures, such as fatigue cracking, corrosion, and delamination, are critical for structural integrity. Most engineering structures have embedded defects such as voids, cracks, inclusions from manufacturing. The properties and locations of embedded defects are generally unknown and hard to detect in complex engineering structures. Therefore, early detection of damage is beneficial for prognosis and risk management of aging infrastructure system.

Non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) are widely used for this purpose. Different types of NDT techniques have been proposed for the damage detection, such as optical image, ultrasound wave, thermography, eddy current, and microwave. The focus in this study is on the wave-based detection method, which is grouped into two major categories: feature-based damage detection and model-assisted damage detection. Both damage detection approaches have their own pros and cons. Feature-based damage detection is usually very fast and doesn’t involve in the solution of the physical model. The key idea is the dimension reduction of signals to achieve efficient damage detection. The disadvantage is that the loss of information due to the feature extraction can induce significant uncertainties and reduces the resolution. The resolution of the feature-based approach highly depends on the sensing path density. Model-assisted damage detection is on the opposite side. Model-assisted damage detection has the ability for high resolution imaging with limited number of sensing paths since the entire signal histories are used for damage identification. Model-based methods are time-consuming due to the requirement for the inverse wave propagation solution, which is especially true for the large 3D structures.

The motivation of the proposed method is to develop efficient and accurate model-based damage imaging technique with limited data. The special focus is on the efficiency of the damage imaging algorithm as it is the major bottleneck of the model-assisted approach. The computational efficiency is achieved by two complimentary components. First, a fast forward wave propagation solver is developed, which is verified with the classical Finite Element(FEM) solution and the speed is 10-20 times faster. Next, efficient inverse wave propagation algorithms is proposed. Classical gradient-based optimization algorithms usually require finite difference method for gradient calculation, which is prohibitively expensive for large degree of freedoms. An adjoint method-based optimization algorithms is proposed, which avoids the repetitive finite difference calculations for every imaging variables. Thus, superior computational efficiency can be achieved by combining these two methods together for the damage imaging. A coupled Piezoelectric (PZT) damage imaging model is proposed to include the interaction between PZT and host structure. Following the formulation of the framework, experimental validation is performed on isotropic and anisotropic material with defects such as cracks, delamination, and voids. The results show that the proposed method can detect and reconstruct multiple damage simultaneously and efficiently, which is promising to be applied to complex large-scale engineering structures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019