Matching Items (8)

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Drug Release from in \u2014 situ gelling material

Description

The main goal of this project was to study and understand the release of gentamicin from in – situ, self – reactive drug delivery gelling matrix. The motivation behind this

The main goal of this project was to study and understand the release of gentamicin from in – situ, self – reactive drug delivery gelling matrix. The motivation behind this was to create a drug delivery mechanism for gentamicin and eliminate the need for re–injecting the drug multiple times into the patient. Gentamicin is used to treat various different bacterial infections of the central nervous system, blood, kidneys, gall bladder, bile duct, heart cavity linings, and heart valves. Pentaerythritol–tetrakis
(3 – mercaptoproprionate; QT) was crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) having an average molecular weight of 575 with the help of Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), with a buffer ionic strength of 0.143M and a pH of 8.9 and 11, for the drug concentrations of 5 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL, respectively. The Michael – type reaction formed the crosslinked self – administering gelling matrix. With the gelling matrix starting to coagulate into a hydrophobic solid in about 5 minutes, the material was injected into Tygon tubing. After complete solidification, the drug – loaded gels were extracted from the tubing and divided into 1 cm cylinders. The cylinders with 5mg/mL and 50mg/mL drug concentration exhibited a sustained and controlled release curve for about 288 hours. This project as well as this drug delivery system can in the future be expanded for use in the delivery of more hydrophobic long – term drugs to the patient.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Sample injector fabrication and delivery method development for serial crystallography using synchrotrons and X-ray free electron lasers

Description

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure determination of several important proteins, including one G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug target, whose structure could not easily have been determined otherwise (Appendix A). In this thesis I describe new sample delivery developments that are paramount to advancing this field beyond what has been accomplished to date. Soft Lithography was used to implement sample conservation in the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). A PDMS/glass composite microfluidic injector was created and given the capability of millisecond fluidic switching of a GDVN liquid jet within the divergent section of a 2D Laval-like GDVN nozzle, providing a means of collecting sample between the pulses of current XFELs. An oil/water droplet immersion jet was prototyped that suspends small sample droplets within an oil jet such that the sample droplet frequency may match the XFEL pulse repetition rate. A similar device was designed to use gas bubbles for synchronized “on/off” jet behavior and for active micromixing. 3D printing based on 2-Photon Polymerization (2PP) was used to directly fabricate reproducible GDVN injectors at high resolution, introducing the possibility of systematic nozzle research and highly complex GDVN injectors. Viscous sample delivery using the “LCP injector” was improved with a method for dealing with poorly extruding sample mediums when using full beam transmission from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a new viscous crystal-carrying medium was characterized for use in both vacuum and atmospheric environments: high molecular weight Polyethylene Glycol.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Chemical processing science of ceramic nanoparticles and films for biomedicine and energy

Description

The central theme of this dissertation is to understand the chemical processing science of advanced ceramic materials for biomedicine, including therapy and imaging. The secondary component focuses on the chemical

The central theme of this dissertation is to understand the chemical processing science of advanced ceramic materials for biomedicine, including therapy and imaging. The secondary component focuses on the chemical processing of energy materials.

Recently, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles (NPs) with various intercalated compounds (e.g. fluorescent molecules, radio-labeled ATP, vitamins, DNA, and drugs) have exhibited versatility and promise as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic (i.e. theranostic) vector. However, its eventual acceptance in biomedicine will be contingent on understanding the processing science, reproducibly synthesizing monodispersed NPs with controlled mean particle size (MPS), and ascertaining the efficacy of the NPs for drug delivery and imaging. First, statistical design of experiments were used to optimize the wet chemistry synthesis of (Zn, Al)-LDH NPs. A synthesis model, which allows the synthesis of nearly monodispersed NPs with controlled MPS, was developed and experimentally verified. Also, the evolution of the nanostructure was characterized, from coprecipitation to hydrothermal treatment, to identify the formation mechanisms. Next, the biocompatibility, cellular uptake and drug delivery capability of LDH NPs were studied. In an in vitro study, using cultured pancreatic adenocarcinoma BXPC3 cells, valproate-intercalated LDH NPs showed an improved efficacy (~50 fold) over the sodium valproate alone. Finally, Gd(DTPA)-intercalated LDH NPs were synthesized and characterized by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 28.38 s-1 mM-1, which is over 6 times higher than the clinically approved contrast agent, Gd(DTPA), demonstrated the potential of this vector for use in magnetic resonance imaging.

Visible light-transparent single metal-semiconductor junction devices, which convert ultraviolet photon energy into high open circuit voltage (Voc>1.5-2 V), are highly desirable for transparent photovoltaics that can potentially power an electrochromic stack for smart windows. A Schottky junction solar cell, comprised of sputtered ZnO/ZnS heterojunction with Cr/Au contacts, was fabricated and an Voc of fî1.35 V was measured. Also, a low-cost route to form ZnO/ZnS heterojunctions by partial sulfurization of solution-grown ZnO thin films (350 nm-5 fÝm thick; conductivity comparable to phosphorus-doped Si) was demonstrated. A final study was on a cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Phase-pure LiFePO4 powders were synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method and characterized.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Evaluation of nanoporous carbon thin films for drug loading and controlled release

Description

Mesoporous materials that possess large surface area, tunable pore size, and ordered structures are attractive features for many applications such as adsorption, protein separation, enzyme encapsulation and drug delivery as

Mesoporous materials that possess large surface area, tunable pore size, and ordered structures are attractive features for many applications such as adsorption, protein separation, enzyme encapsulation and drug delivery as these materials can be tailored to host different guest molecules. Films provide a model system to understand how the pore orientation impacts the potential for loading and release of selectively sized molecules. This research work aims to develop structure-property relationships to understand how pore size, geometry, and surface hydrophobicity influence the loading and release of drug molecules. In this study, the pore size is systematically varied by incorporating pore-swelling agent of polystyrene oligomers (hPS) to soft templated mesoporous carbon films fabricated by cooperative assembly of poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (SEO) with phenolic resin. To examine the impact of morphology, different compositions of amphiphilic triblock copolymer templates, poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), are used to form two-dimensional hexagonal and cubic mesostructures. Lastly, the carbonization temperature provides a handle to tune the hydrophobicity of the film. These mesoporous films are then utilized to understand the uptake and release of a model drug Mitoxantrone dihydrochloride from nanostructured materials. The largest pore size (6nm) mesoporous carbon based on SEO exhibits the largest uptake (3.5μg/cm2); this is attributed to presence of larger internal volume compared to the other two films. In terms of release, a controlled response is observed for all films with the highest release for the 2nm cubic film (1.45 μg/cm2) after 15 days, but this is only 56 % of the drug loaded. Additionally, the surface hydrophobicity impacts the fraction of drug release with a decrease from 78% to 43%, as the films become more hydrophobic when carbonized at higher temperatures. This work provides a model system to understand how pore morphology, size and chemistry influence the drug loading and release for potential implant applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Preparation and svaluation of aminoglycoside-based nanogels and microgels for gene delivery and DNA binding

Description

Many therapeutics administered for some of the most devastating illnesses can be toxic and result in unwanted side effects. Recent developments have been made in an alternative treatment method, called

Many therapeutics administered for some of the most devastating illnesses can be toxic and result in unwanted side effects. Recent developments have been made in an alternative treatment method, called gene therapy. Gene therapy has potential to rectify the genetic defects that cause a broad range of diseases. Many diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS) already have gene therapy protocols that are currently in clinical trials. Finding a non-toxic and efficient gene transfer method has been a challenge. Viral vectors are effective at transgene delivery however potential for insertion mutagenesis and activation of immune responses raises concern. For this reason, non-viral vectors have been investigated as a safer alternative to viral-mediated gene delivery. Non-viral vectors are also easy to prepare and scalable, but are limited by low transgene delivery efficacies and high cytotoxicity at effective therapeutic dosages. Thus, there is a need for a non-toxic non-viral vector with high transgene efficacies. In addition to the hurdles in finding a material for gene delivery, large-scale production of pharmaceutical grade DNA for gene therapy is needed. Current methods can be labor intensive, time consuming, and use toxic chemicals. For this reason, an efficient and safe method to collect DNA is needed. One material that is currently being explored is the hydrogel. Hydrogels are a useful subclass of biomaterials, with a wide variety of applications. This class of biomaterials can carry up to a thousand times their weight in water, and are biocompatible. At smaller dimensions, referred to as micro- and nanogels, they are very useful for many biomedical applications because of their size and ability to swell. Based on a previously synthesized hydrogel, and due to the advantages of smaller dimension in biomedical applications, we have synthesized aminoglycoside antibiotic based nanogels and microgels. Microgels and nanogels were synthesized following a ring opening polymerization of epoxide-containing crosslinkers and polyamine-containing monomers. The nanogels were screened for their cytocompatibilities and transfection efficacies, and were compared to polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Nanogels demonstrated minimal to no toxicity to the cell line used in the study even at high concentrations. Due to the emerging need for large-scale production of DNA, microgels were evaluated for their binding capacity to plasmid DNA. Future work with the aminoglycoside antibiotic-based nanogels and microgels developed in this study will involve optimization of nanogels and microgels to facilitate in better transgene delivery and plasmid DNA binding, respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Stabilization of 3D DNA nanostructures for in vivo applications and developing an assay to estimate stability

Description

Though DNA nanostructures (DNs) have become interesting subjects of drug delivery, in vivo imaging and biosensor research, however, for real biological applications, they should be ‘long circulating’ in blood. One

Though DNA nanostructures (DNs) have become interesting subjects of drug delivery, in vivo imaging and biosensor research, however, for real biological applications, they should be ‘long circulating’ in blood. One of the crucial requirements for DN stability is high salt concentration (like ~5–20 mM Mg2+) that is unavailable in a cell culture medium or in blood. Hence DNs denature promptly when injected into living systems. Another important factor is the presence of nucleases that cause fast degradation of unprotected DNs. The third factor is ‘opsonization’ which is the immune process by which phagocytes target foreign particles introduced into the bloodstream. The primary aim of this thesis is to design strategies that can improve the in vivo stability of DNs, thus improving their pharmacodynamics and biodistribution.

Several strategies were investigated to address the three previously mentioned limitations. The first attempt was to study the effect length and conformation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on DN stability. DNs were also coated with PEG-lipid and human serum albumin (HSA) and their stealth efficiencies were compared. The findings reveal that both PEGylation and albumin coating enhance low salt stability, increase resistance towards nuclease action and reduce uptake of DNs by macrophages. Any protective coating around a DN increases its hydrodynamic radius, which is a crucial parameter influencing their clearance. Keeping this in mind, intrinsically stable DNs that can survive low salt concentration without any polymer coating were built. Several DNA compaction agents and DNA binders were screened to stabilize DNs in low magnesium conditions. Among them arginine, lysine, bis-lysine and hexamine cobalt showed the potential to enhance DN stability.

This thesis also presents a sensitive assay, the Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), for the estimation of DN stability with time. It requires very simple modifications on the DNs and it can yield precise results from a very small amount of sample. The applicability of PLA was successfully tested on several DNs ranging from a simple wireframe tetrahedron to a 3D origami and the protocol to collect in vivo samples, isolate the DNs and measure their stability was developed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Application of multivalent interactions for recognition imaging and delivery of therapeutics

Description

Multivalency is an important phenomenon that guides numerous biological interactions. It has been utilized in design of therapeutics and drug candidates. Hence, this study attempts to develop analytical tools to

Multivalency is an important phenomenon that guides numerous biological interactions. It has been utilized in design of therapeutics and drug candidates. Hence, this study attempts to develop analytical tools to study multivalent interactions and design multivalent ligands for drug delivery and therapeutic applications.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been envisioned as a means of nanodiagnostics due to its single molecule sensitivity. However, the AFM based recognition imaging lacks a multiplex capacity to detect multiple analytes in a single test. Also there is no user friendly wet chemistry to functionalize AFM tips. Hence, an uncatalyzed Click Chemistry protocol was developed to functionalize AFM tips. For multiplexed recognition imaging, recognition heads based on a C3 symmetrical three arm linker with azide functionalities at its ends were synthesized and the chemistry to attach them to AFM tips was developed, and these recognition heads were used in detecting multiple proteins simultaneously using AFM.

A bis-Angiopeptide-2 conjugate with this three-arm linker was synthesized and this was conjugated with anti-West Nile virus antibody E16 site specifically to target advanced West Nile virus infection in the Central Nervous System. The bis-Angiopeptide-2 conjugate of the antibody shows higher efficacy compared to a linear linker-Angiopeptide-2 conjugate of the antibody in in vitro studies and currently the efficacy of this antibody conjugate in studied in mice. Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) results indicate that the conjugation does not affect the antigen binding activity of the antibody very significantly.

A Y-shaped bisbiotin ligand was also prepared as a small sized antibody mimic. Compared to a monovalent biotin ligand, the y-Bisbiotin can cooperatively form a significantly more stable complex with streptavidin through intramolecular bivalent interactions, which were demonstrated by gel electrophoresis, SPR and AFM. Continuing on these lines, a four-arm linker was synthesized containing three single chain variable fragments (scFv) linked to the scaffold to form a tripod base, which would allow them to concomitantly interact with a trimeric Glycoprotein (GP) spike that has a “chalice” configuration. Meanwhile, a human IgG1 Fc is to be installed on the top of the tetrahedron, exerting effector functions of a monoclonal antibody.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Collective behavior of swimming bimetallic motors in chemical concentration gradients

Description

Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric

Locomotion of microorganisms is commonly observed in nature. Although microorganism locomotion is commonly attributed to mechanical deformation of solid appendages, in 1956 Nobel Laureate Peter Mitchell proposed that an asymmetric ion flux on a bacterium's surface could generate electric fields that drive locomotion via self-electrophoresis. Recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the engineering of synthetic analogues, bimetallic colloidal particles, that swim due to asymmetric ion flux originally proposed by Mitchell. Bimetallic colloidal particles swim through aqueous solutions by converting chemical fuel to fluid motion through asymmetric electrochemical reactions. This dissertation presents novel bimetallic motor fabrication strategies, motor functionality, and a study of the motor collective behavior in chemical concentration gradients. Brownian dynamics simulations and experiments show that the motors exhibit chemokinesis, a motile response to chemical gradients that results in net migration and concentration of particles. Chemokinesis is typically observed in living organisms and distinct from chemotaxis in that there is no particle directional sensing. The synthetic motor chemokinesis observed in this work is due to variation in the motor's velocity and effective diffusivity as a function of the fuel and salt concentration. Static concentration fields are generated in microfluidic devices fabricated with porous walls. The development of nanoscale particles that swim autonomously and collectively in chemical concentration gradients can be leveraged for a wide range of applications such as directed drug delivery, self-healing materials, and environmental remediation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011