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In Vitro and In Silico Study of Hemodynamics In Vascular Models: Validating Computational Fluid Dynamics for Medical Application

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This study investigates the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the medical field. An overview of recent advances in computational simulation and modeling in medical applications is provided, with a particular emphasis on CFD. This study attempts to validate

This study investigates the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the medical field. An overview of recent advances in computational simulation and modeling in medical applications is provided, with a particular emphasis on CFD. This study attempts to validate CFD and demonstrate the possibility for applying CFD to the clinical treatment and evaluation of atherosclerotic disease. Three different geometric configurations are investigated: one idealized bifurcation with a primary diameter of 8 mm, and two different patient-specific models of the bifurcation from the common femoral artery to the superficial and deep femoral arteries. CFD is compared against experimental measurements of steady state and pulsatile flow acquired with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Steady state and pulsatile flow rates that are consistent with those observed in the femoral artery are used. In addition, pulsatile CFD simulations are analyzed in order to demonstrate meaningful clinical applications for studying and evaluating the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. CFD was successfully validated for steady state flow, with an average percent error of 6.991%. Potential for validation was also demonstrated for pulsatile flow, but methodological errors warrant further investigation to reformulate methods and analyze results. Quantities frequently associated with atherosclerotic disease and arterial bifurcations, such as large variations in wall shear stress and the presence of recirculation zones are demonstrated from the pulsatile CFD simulations. Further study is required in order to evaluate whether or not such phenomena are represented by CFD accurately. Further study must also be performed in order to evaluate the practicality and utility of CFD for the evaluation of atherosclerotic disease treatment.

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2016-05

Low-Cost PIV Experimentation for Undergraduate Fluid Dynamics Courses

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Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has become a cornerstone of modern experimental fluid mechanics due to its unique ability to resolve the entire instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field of an experimental flow. However, this methodology has historically been omitted from undergraduate curricula

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has become a cornerstone of modern experimental fluid mechanics due to its unique ability to resolve the entire instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field of an experimental flow. However, this methodology has historically been omitted from undergraduate curricula due to the significant cost of research-grade PIV systems and safety considerations stemming from the high-power Nd-YAG lasers typically implemented by PIV systems. In the following undergraduate thesis, a low-cost model of a PIV system is designed to be used within the context of an undergraduate fluid mechanics lab. The proposed system consists of a Hele-Shaw water tunnel, a high-power LED lighting source, and a modern smartphone camera. Additionally, a standalone application was developed to perform the necessary image processing as well as to perform Particle Streak Velocimetry (PSV) and PIV image analysis. Ultimately, the proposed system costs $229.33 and can replicate modern PIV techniques albeit for simple flow scenarios.

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2021-05

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PIV ANALYSIS OF BASILAR TIP ANEURYSM HEMODYNAMICS, AND THE EFFECTS OF ENTERPRISE STENT TREATMENT

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Intracranial aneurysms, which form in the blood vessels of the brain, are particularly dangerous because of the importance and fragility of the human brain. When an intracranial aneurysm gets large it poses a significant risk of bursting and causing subarachnoid

Intracranial aneurysms, which form in the blood vessels of the brain, are particularly dangerous because of the importance and fragility of the human brain. When an intracranial aneurysm gets large it poses a significant risk of bursting and causing subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH), a possibly fatal condition. One possible treatment involves placing a stent in the vessel to act as a flow diverter. In this study we look at the hemodynamics of two geometries of idealized basilar tip aneurysms, at 2,3, and 4 ml/s pulsatile flow, at three different points in the cardiac cycle. The smaller model had neck and dome diameters of 2.67 mm and 4 mm respectively, while the larger aneurysm had neck and dome diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm respectively. Both diameters and the dome to neck ratio increased in the second model, representing growth over time. Flow was analyzed using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) for both geometries in untreated models, as well as after treatment with a high porosity Enterprise stent (Codman and Shurtleff Inc.). Flow in the models was characterized by root mean square velocity in the aneurysm and neck plane, cross neck flow, max aneurysm vorticity, and total aneurysm kinetic energy. It was found that in the smaller aneurysm model (model 1), Enterprise stent treatment reduced all flow parameters substantially. The smallest reduction was in max vorticity, at 42.48%, and the largest in total kinetic energy, at 75.69%. In the larger model (model 2) there was a 52.18% reduction in cross neck flow, but a 167.28% increase in aneurysm vorticity. The other three parameters experienced little change. These results, along with observed velocity vector fields, indicate a noticeable diversion of flow away from the aneurysm in the stent treated model 1. Treatment in model 2 had a small flow diversion effect, but also altered flow in unpredictable ways, in some cases having a detrimental effect on aneurysm hemodynamics. The results of this study indicate that Enterprise stent treatment is only effective in small, relatively undeveloped aneurysm geometries, and waiting until an aneurysm has grown too large can eliminate this treatment option altogether.

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2013-05

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Experimental study of the flow field in a model rotor-stator disk cavity using particle image velocimetry

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Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk rims and purge air, bled off from the compressor, is

Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk rims and purge air, bled off from the compressor, is injected into the cavities. It is desirable to reduce the supply of purge air as this decreases the net power output as well as efficiency of the gas turbine. Since the purge air influences the disk cavity flow field and effectively the amount of ingestion, the aim of this work was to study the cavity velocity field experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were carried out in a model single-stage axial flow turbine set-up that featured blades as well as vanes, with purge air supplied at the hub of the rotor-stator disk cavity. Along with the rotor and stator rim seals, an inner labyrinth seal was provided which split the disk cavity into a rim cavity and an inner cavity. First, static gage pressure distribution was measured to ensure that nominally steady flow conditions had been achieved. The PIV experiments were then performed to map the velocity field on the radial-tangential plane within the rim cavity at four axial locations. Instantaneous velocity maps obtained by PIV were analyzed sector-by-sector to understand the rim cavity flow field. It was observed that the tangential velocity dominated the cavity flow at low purge air flow rate, its dominance decreasing with increase in the purge air flow rate. Radially inboard of the rim cavity, negative radial velocity near the stator surface and positive radial velocity near the rotor surface indicated the presence of a recirculation region in the cavity whose radial extent increased with increase in the purge air flow rate. Qualitative flow streamline patterns are plotted within the rim cavity for different experimental conditions by combining the PIV map information with ingestion measurements within the cavity as reported in Thiagarajan (2013).

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2013