Matching Items (8)

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The Cost of Education Versus Incarceration

Description

Education, with emphasis on post secondary education, should become a top priority for policy makers with regards to the criminal justice system in the United States. Criminal justice funding within the United States is being applied increasingly to factors that

Education, with emphasis on post secondary education, should become a top priority for policy makers with regards to the criminal justice system in the United States. Criminal justice funding within the United States is being applied increasingly to factors that correlate with high rates of recidivism such as housing increased numbers of inmates. Research strongly supports education in the mitigation of the rate of recidivism. Reducing the rate of recidivism helps to create a more sustainable influx of inmates into correctional facilities. Those who enter into prison are some of the most economically disadvantaged individuals in the United States. In comparison to the general population, the prison population has significantly lower formal education levels and lower literacy levels. Without access to an education, inmates have the greater struggle to reach economic livelihood. Limited access to education perpetuates a cycle of inequality and injustice and can contribute to high recidivism rates. Recidivism drives up the costs of taxpayer dollars. Effective means for integrating inmates into society, such as basic literacy training and access to post secondary educational programs, must be expanded on and implemented.

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Created

Date Created
2012-05

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Effect of a Local Labor Demand Shock on Postsecondary Education Enrollment

Description

A growing number of jobs in the US require a college degree or technical education, and the wage difference between jobs requiring a high school diploma and a college education has increased to over $17,000 per year. Enrollment levels in

A growing number of jobs in the US require a college degree or technical education, and the wage difference between jobs requiring a high school diploma and a college education has increased to over $17,000 per year. Enrollment levels in postsecondary education have been rising for at least the past decade, and this paper attempts to tease out how much of the increasing enrollment is due to changes in the demand by companies for workers. A Bartik Instrument, which is a measure of local area labor demand, for each county in the US was constructed from 2007 to 2014, and using multivariate linear regression the effect of changing labor demand on local postsecondary education enrollment rates was examined. A small positive effect was found, but the effect size in relation to the total change in enrollment levels was diminutive. From the start to the end of the recession (2007 to 2010), Bartik Instrument calculated unemployment increased from 5.3% nationally to 8.2%. This level of labor demand contraction would lead to a 0.42% increase in enrollment between 2008 and 2011. The true enrollment increase over this period was 7.6%, so the model calculated 5.5% of the enrollment increase was based on the changes in labor demand.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Expectations and the post transition of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder to post-secondary education

Description

Over the past two decades, substantial research has documented the increase of students with disabilities enrolling in post-secondary education. The purpose of the study was to examine factors identified as significant in preparing individuals who fall on the autism

Over the past two decades, substantial research has documented the increase of students with disabilities enrolling in post-secondary education. The purpose of the study was to examine factors identified as significant in preparing individuals who fall on the autism spectrum for post-secondary experiences. The study was exploratory in nature and designed to identify perceived critical program elements needed to design successful post-secondary transition programs for students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study used archival research and grounded theory to look at expectations of parents with young adults with an ASD and young adults with an ASD on post-secondary transition and to discern whether expectations impact the successful post transition of young adults. More than likely, due to an overall increase in the prevalence of ASDs, many more students with an ASD will be attending a post-secondary educational setting in the near future. Understanding expectations and particular challenges faced by students with an ASD will be necessary for colleges to meet the unique needs of this population.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Social-emotional predictors of postsecondary enrollment for students with disabilities

Description

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine which social-emotional skills may predict postsecondary enrollment for students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are less likely to enroll in any form of postsecondary education and in turn experience poorer post-education

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine which social-emotional skills may predict postsecondary enrollment for students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are less likely to enroll in any form of postsecondary education and in turn experience poorer post-education outcomes than their general education peers. Using data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2), a classification tree analysis was conducted on teacher-rated social-emotional behaviors in an attempt to determine which social-emotional skills were the strongest predictors of postsecondary enrollment. Items assessing social-emotional skills were selected from the second wave of teacher surveys based on their alignment with the broad taxonomy of social-emotional skills created by Caldarella and Merrell. The results of the classification tree analysis showed that one of the selected social-emotional items, teacher rated ability to follow directions, was the most significant predictor of postsecondary enrollment for students with disabilities. In general, the results suggest that compliance and, to a lesser extent, peer-relations skills, in addition to family income, predict postsecondary enrollment for students with high-incidence disabilities. This finding suggests that social-emotional skills play an important role in postsecondary enrollment for SWD, providing support for the use of social-emotional skills interventions in improving postsecondary enrollment rates and potentially post-educational outcomes for SWD.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Postsecondary transition in Individuals on the autism spectrum

Description

Literature reviews, books, and research studies are reviewed in this thesis with the purpose of examining the postsecondary transition of young adults on the autism spectrum (AS). Previous research on the specific social, legislative, victimization, and self-determination issues that young

Literature reviews, books, and research studies are reviewed in this thesis with the purpose of examining the postsecondary transition of young adults on the autism spectrum (AS). Previous research on the specific social, legislative, victimization, and self-determination issues that young adults on the AS face during their postsecondary transition process is extensively examined as well as research that addresses the viewpoints of postsecondary programs from the perspectives of caregivers and young adults. Research studies and literature reviews that address current postsecondary programs for those on the AS and current adult outcomes for those on the AS are also included in the literature review section. The research aspect of the current thesis involved a postsecondary education transition team at Arizona State University who compared the viewpoints of young adults and parents of young adults on the AS on their experience with the postsecondary transition process and what they believe should be fundamental aspects of the postsecondary transition process. Two forms of a survey were administered (one for the young adult population and another for the parent population). Survey results found a lot of similarities and differences in terms of how caregivers and young adults felt about postsecondary transition. Although both young adults and caregivers expressed a strong interest in postsecondary programs for students with autism, both groups expressed that the likelihood of the young adult attending such a program would be significantly less. Differing viewpoints between the two populations existed on what a postsecondary program should look like. Although the two groups did agree that such programs should consist of an employment and social activities component, young adults felt that programs should have a more diverse set of criteria. Following completion of a secondary program, caregivers saw young adults attending a postsecondary education institution, while young adults perceived themselves as transferring directly into the workforce. On the contrary, caregivers did demonstrate an even variability in choice for opinions. The thesis concludes with the many implications for this study and suggestions for future research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Increasing postsecondary education & employment planning through a high school advisory program

Description

This mixed methods action research study examined the effectiveness of an Education and Career Action Plan (ECAP) Advisory Program on students’ formation of postsecondary education and employment plans.

The study took place at a public high school in northern

This mixed methods action research study examined the effectiveness of an Education and Career Action Plan (ECAP) Advisory Program on students’ formation of postsecondary education and employment plans.

The study took place at a public high school in northern Arizona. Participants included thirty-three 11th-Grade Advisory students, four 11th-grade advisors, and me, the action researcher. One quantitative data instrument and three qualitative data instruments were used for data collection. Each of the four data collection instruments provided insight about one of the study’s research questions.

The quantitative data from this study addressed whether the intervention had an impact on the ECAP Advisory Program’s ability to enhance students’ postsecondary knowledge. Results from the quantitative data demonstrated significant positive change, indicating that, through their participation in an ECAP Advisory Program, students developed their postsecondary education and employment knowledge.

The qualitative data from this study addressed how the participants experienced the intervention by providing a deeper understanding of their experiences with their ECAP Advisor and the ECAP Advisory Program. Results from the qualitative data indicated that students’ perceptions of postsecondary education and employment planning changed substantially during their participation in the ECAP Advisory Program. As the study progressed, student participants reported they could more appropriately visualize the postsecondary education and employment environments that aligned with their interests. Furthermore, because of the time allocated for lessons and activities in the ECAP Advisory Program, students participants also reported feeling more prepared to pursue postsecondary education and employment opportunities as the ECAP Advisory Program progressed. And perhaps most importantly, student participants reported that their advisor positively impacted their postsecondary education and employment planning.

Overall, in association with their participation in the ECAP Advisory Program and relationship with their ECAP Advisor, students expanded their postsecondary education and employment knowledge levels, developed and modified their education and employment goals, and felt more prepared to pursue postsecondary education and employment opportunities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Self-determination skill development: a qualitative exploration of college students with autism spectrum disorders

Description

This study explored the influence of how the development of self-determination skills affected college students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Five college students who qualified for a university-based disabilities resource program under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

This study explored the influence of how the development of self-determination skills affected college students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Five college students who qualified for a university-based disabilities resource program under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participated in a five session mentoring program over the course of the first 12 weeks of the fall semester. The mentoring program was designed to develop specific self-determination skills, including, self-awareness, self-advocacy, and confidence. Participants engaged in an interactive dialogue, discussing specific skills and experiences, relative to the development of self-determination skills. Pre- and post-surveys, and a post intervention interview indicated that the students reported positive results in describing that mentoring experience, and found the protocol useful in their development of self-determination skills. Implications identified for further application into practice, include (a) a deeper appreciation and review of the participants’ background and experience, (b) the development and implementation of peer-to-peer mentoring, (c) the need for more intentional collaboration with high school partners, (d) the need to expand the skills being developed, and (e), the need to expand the number of services and resources discussed. This study will be used in the exploration of a broader collegiate mentoring program geared towards students with ASD with the purpose of increasing self-determination skills.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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The Role of ICAP in Effective Course Design: A Learning Analytic Evaluation

Description

Recently, the Interactive-Constructive-Active-Passive (ICAP) framework has been gaining increasing prominence in cognitive and learning sciences. The ICAP theory asserts that students learn more deeply when they are cognitively engaged in generative and collaborative learning. Indeed, prior studies have established the

Recently, the Interactive-Constructive-Active-Passive (ICAP) framework has been gaining increasing prominence in cognitive and learning sciences. The ICAP theory asserts that students learn more deeply when they are cognitively engaged in generative and collaborative learning. Indeed, prior studies have established the value of the ICAP framework for predicting student learning. However, the framework has yet to become widely used by practitioners, possibly due to the lack of accessible resources for applying the framework instruction design. This study sought to fill that gap by implementing and validating the ICAP instructional rubric instrument to rate the design of college chemistry courses at a large public university in the southwest and exploring its relationships with several metrics of student performance via multiple regression analysis: a) level of participation; b) final exam grades; c) course grades; d) course retention; and e) course attrition. This study analyzed data from the university’s learning management system and included student-level controls such as markers of prior academic performance (i.e., GPA and SAT scores) as well as student demographics. The findings of this study suggest that the ICAP framework may be a useful tool for instructors to improve course design. In addition, the ICAP framework’s predictive claims on student deeper learning were further validated by the results of this study.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2022