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High resolution spectroscopy, normal mode analysis, and Franck-Condon factors calculation of transition metal-containing molecules

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The objective of the present investigations is to experimentally determine the fundamental molecular properties of the transient metal containing pieces. The transient molecules have been generated using laser ablation production

The objective of the present investigations is to experimentally determine the fundamental molecular properties of the transient metal containing pieces. The transient molecules have been generated using laser ablation production technique and detected by using laser induced fluorescence technique. Ultra-high resolution spectra of the diatomic molecules, 87SrF, 135&137BaF, YbF, HfF, and IrSi were recorded at a resolution of approximately 30 Mhz. The fine and hyperfine structure of these molecules were determined for the ground and the excited state. The optical Stark splittings of 180HfF and IrSi were recorded and analyzed to determine the permanent electric dipole moments of the ground and the excited state. An effective Hamiltonian operator, including the rotational, centrifugal distortion, spin-orbit, spin-spin, spin-rotation, Λ-doubling, magnetic hyperfine and quadrupole interactions, and Stark effect, was employed to model and analyze the recorded spectra. The electronic spectra of the triatomic molecules, TiO2 and ZrO2, were recorded using pulsed dye laser, LIF, spectrometer at a resolution of 300MHz. These molecules have C2v symmetry. The harmonic frequencies, lifetime measurements were determined. These spectra of ZrO2 and TiO2 were modeled using a normal coordinate analysis and Franck-Condon factor predictions. High resolution field-free and Stark effect spectra of ZrO2 were recorded and for future investigation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Solvent electrostatic response: from simple solutes to proteins

Description

How water behaves at interfaces is relevant to many scientific and technological applications; however, many subtle phenomena are unknown in aqueous solutions. In this work, interfacial structural transition in hydration

How water behaves at interfaces is relevant to many scientific and technological applications; however, many subtle phenomena are unknown in aqueous solutions. In this work, interfacial structural transition in hydration shells of a polarizable solute at critical polarizabilities is discovered. The transition is manifested in maximum water response, the reorientation of the water dipoles at the interface, and an increase in the density of dangling OH bonds. This work also addresses the role of polarizability of the active site of proteins in biological catalytic reactions. For proteins, the hydration shell becomes very heterogeneous and involves a relatively large number of water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulations show that the polarizability, along with the atomic charge distribution, needs to be a part of the picture describing how enzymes work. Non Gaussian dynamics in time-resolved linear and nonlinear (correlation) 2D spectra are also analyzed.

Additionally, a theoretical formalism is presented to show that when preferential orientations of water dipoles exist at the interface, electrophoretic charges can be produced without free charge carriers, i.e., neutral solutes can move in a constant electric field due to the divergence of polarization at the interface. Furthermore, the concept of interface susceptibility is introduced. It involves the fluctuations of the surface charge density caused by thermal motion and its correlation over the characteristic correlation length with the fluctuations of the solvent charge density. Solvation free energy and interface dielectric constant are formulated accordingly. Unlike previous approaches, the solvation free energy scales quite well in a broad range of ion sizes, namely in the range of 2-14 A° . Interface dielectric constant is defined such that the boundary conditions in the Laplace equation describing a micro- or mesoscopic interface are satisfied. The effective dielectric constant of interfacial water is found to be significantly lower than its bulk value. Molecular dynamics simulation results show that the interface dielectric constant for a TIP3P water model changes from nine to four when the effective solute radius is increased from 5 A° to 18 A° . The small value of the interface dielectric constant of water has potentially dramatic consequences for hydration.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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A comparative study of gold bonding via electronic spectroscopy

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The bonding and electrostatic properties of gold containing molecules are highly influenced by relativistic effects. To understand this facet on bonding, a series of simple diatomic AuX (X=F, Cl, O

The bonding and electrostatic properties of gold containing molecules are highly influenced by relativistic effects. To understand this facet on bonding, a series of simple diatomic AuX (X=F, Cl, O and S) molecules, where upon bond formation the Au atom donates or accepts electrons, was investigated and discussed in this thesis.

First, the optical field-free, Stark, and Zeeman spectroscopic studies have been performed on AuF and AuCl. The simple polar bonds between Au and typical halogens (i.e. F and Cl) can be well characterized by the electronic structure studies and the permanent electric dipole moments, el. The spectroscopic parameters have been precisely determined for the [17.7]1, [17.8]0+ and X1+ states of AuF, and the [17.07]1, [17.20]0+ and X1+ states of AuCl. The el have been determined for ground and excited states of AuF and AuCl. The results from the hyperfine analysis and Stark measurement support the assignments that the [17.7]1 and [17.8]0+ states of AuF are the components of a 3 state. Similarly, the analysis demonstrated the [19.07]1 and [19.20]0+ states are the components of the 3 state of AuCl.

Second, my study focused on AuO and AuS because the bonding between gold and sulfur/oxygen is a key component to numerous established and emerging technologies that have applications as far ranging as medical imaging, catalysis, electronics, and material science. The high-resolution spectra were record and analyzed to obtain the geometric and electronic structural data for the ground and excited states. The electric dipole moment, el, and the magnetic dipole moment, m, has been the precisely measured by applying external static electric and magnetic fields. el andm are used to give insight into the unusual complex bonding in these molecules.

In addition to direct studies on the gold-containing molecules, other studies of related molecules are included here as well. These works contain the pure rotation measurement of PtC, the hyperfine and Stark spectroscopic studies of PtF, and the Stark and Zeeman spectroscopic studies of MgH and MgD.

Finally, a perspective discussion and conclusion will summarize the results of AuF, AuCl, AuO, and AuS from this work (bond lengths, dipole moment, etc.). The highly quantitative information derived from this work is the foundation of a chemical description of matter and essential for kinetic energy manipulation via Stark and Zeeman interactions. This data set also establishes a synergism with computation chemists who are developing new methodologies for treating relativistic effects and electron correlation.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Nonlinear dielectric effects and modification of supramolecular structures in monohydroxy alcohols

Description

A driving force for studies of water, alcohols, and amides is the determination of the role of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can break and reform, consequently creating supramolecular structures. Understanding

A driving force for studies of water, alcohols, and amides is the determination of the role of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can break and reform, consequently creating supramolecular structures. Understanding the role supramolecular structures play in the dynamics of monohydroxyl alcohols is important to understanding hydrogen bonding in more complex systems such as proteins. Since many monohydroxyl alcohols are good glass formers, dielectric spectroscopy in the supercooled regime is used to gather information about the dynamics of these liquids. Application of high external fields will reversibly alter the polarization responses of the material from the linear response. This results in nonlinear dielectric effects (NDE) such as field induced suppression (saturation) and enhancement of amplitudes (chemical effects) as well as shifts in the time constants toward slower (entropy) and faster (energy absorption) dynamics.

The first part of this thesis describes the nonlinear dielectric experiments on monohydroxyl alcohols, with an emphasis on the time dependence of NDEs. For the first time, time-dependent experiments on monoalcohols were done, the results showed that NDEs occur on the Debye time scale. Furthermore, physical vapor deposition (PVD) is used to modify the supramolecular structure of 4-methyl-3-heptanol. Upon deposition the film cannot form the ring like structures, which are preferred in the bulk material. The as deposited film shows an enhancement of the dielectric peak by a factor of approximately 11 when compared to the bulk material. The conversion from the as deposited material back to the near bulk material was found to occur on the Debye timescale.

The second part of this thesis focuses on the question of what is governing the field induced changes seen in the liquids studied. Here a complete set of high field experiments on highly polar propylene carbonate derivatives were performed. It was demonstrated that these materials exhibit a Debye-like peak and using a combination of Adam-Gibbs and Fröhlich’s definition of entropy, proposed by Johari [G.P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys 138, 154503 (2013)], cannot solely be used to describe a frustration of dynamics. It is important to note that although these material exhibit a Debye like peak, the behavior is much different than monoalcohols.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Optical spectroscopy of heavy element containing molecules in support of fundamental physics

Description

Transient molecules are of great importance having proposed applications in quantum science and technology and tests of fundamental physics. In the present dissertation, the transient molecules studied are SrOH, ThF,

Transient molecules are of great importance having proposed applications in quantum science and technology and tests of fundamental physics. In the present dissertation, the transient molecules studied are SrOH, ThF, ThCl, YbF and YbOH; each having been selected because of their proposed application. Specifically, SrOH is a candidate of constructing a molecular magneto-optical trap (MOT). The simple actinide molecules, ThF and ThCl, were selected as ligand bonding model systems to gain insight into chemical processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The lanthanides YbF and YbOH are venues for the determination of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) and the studies in this dissertation provide the requisite properties for those experiments.

Intense supersonic molecular beams of these transient molecules were generated via laser ablation and spectroscopically characterized using a novel medium-resolution two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopic approach, as well as high-resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The 2D medium resolution approach, which was used in the studies SrOH, ThF, ThCl and YbOH, uses a multiplexing method that simultaneously records dispersed fluorescence and excitation spectra. A significant advantage of 2D-LIF imaging is that all the electronics states can be targeted to determine the electronics states and associated vibrational spacing individually. Consequently, in the 2D spectra of ThF, ThCl and YbOH, several previously unobserved band systems have been detected in one single scan. For the DF spectra of SrOH and YbOH, the determined branching ratios show that the transitions of these molecules are diagonal (i.e. Δv=0), which is essential for the proposed potential for laser cooling. In the high-resolution of YbF, ThF, ThCl and SrOH optical spectra were recorded to an accuracy of ±30 MHz, which represents an unprecedented precision of 1:10+8.

In addition to field free spectra, optical Stark and Zeeman studies were performed to determine the most fundamental magneto-and electro-static properties. Effective Hamiltonian operators were employed to analyze the recorded spectra and determine the spectroscopic parameters. This data set also establishes a contribution toward developing new computational methodologies for treating relativistic effects and electron correlation.

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Date Created
  • 2019