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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

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Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Date Created
2014

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Sensor management algorithms for measurement of diffusion processes

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Modern systems that measure dynamical phenomena often have limitations as to how many sensors can operate at any given time step. This thesis considers a sensor scheduling problem in which the source of a diffusive phenomenon is to be

Modern systems that measure dynamical phenomena often have limitations as to how many sensors can operate at any given time step. This thesis considers a sensor scheduling problem in which the source of a diffusive phenomenon is to be localized using single point measurements of its concentration. With a linear diffusion model, and in the absence of noise, classical observability theory describes whether or not the system's initial state can be deduced from a given set of linear measurements. However, it does not describe to what degree the system is observable. Different metrics of observability have been proposed in literature to address this issue. Many of these methods are based on choosing optimal or sub-optimal sensor schedules from a predetermined collection of possibilities. This thesis proposes two greedy algorithms for a one-dimensional and two-dimensional discrete diffusion processes. The first algorithm considers a deterministic linear dynamical system and deterministic linear measurements. The second algorithm considers noise on the measurements and is compared to a Kalman filter scheduling method described in published work.

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2016