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Application of methods in physical activity measurement

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It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and methodology for a variety of physical activity assessment methods. Project one identified validity evidence for the new MyWellness Key accelerometer in sixteen adults. The MyWellness Key demonstrated acceptable validity evidence when compared to a criterion accelerometer during graded treadmill walking and in free-living settings. This supports the use of the MyWellness Key accelerometer to measure physical activity. Project two evaluated validity (study 1) and test-retest reliability evidence (study 2) of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a two part study. The GPAQ was compared to direct and indirect criterion measures including object and subjective physical activity instruments. These data provided preliminary validity and reliability evidence for the GPAQ that support its use to assess physical activity. Project three investigated the optimal h.d-1 of accelerometer wear time needed to assess daily physical activity. Using a semi-simulation approach, data from 124 participants were used to compare 10-13 h.d-1 to the criterion 14 h.d-1. This study suggested that a minimum accelerometer wear time of 13 h.d-1 is needed to provide a valid measure of daily physical activity. Project four evaluated validity and reliability evidence of a novel method (Movement and Activity in Physical Space [MAPS] score) that combines accelerometer and GPS data to assess person-environment interactions. Seventy-five healthy adults wore an accelerometer and GPS receiver for three days to provide MAPS scores. This study provided evidence for use of a MAPS score for future research and clinical use. Project five used accelerometer data from 1,000 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. A semi-simulation approach was used to assess the effect of accelerometer wear time (10-14 h.d-1) on physical activity data. These data showed wearing for 12 h.d-1 or less may underestimate time spent in various intensities of physical activity.

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Date Created
2011

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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

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Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Date Created
2014