Matching Items (18)

141316-Thumbnail Image.png

Inspiring and Advancing the Many-Disciplined Study of Institutional Trust

Description

The purpose of this volume is to consider how trust research, particularly trust in institutions, might benefit from increased inter- or transdisciplinarity. In this introductory chapter, we first give some

The purpose of this volume is to consider how trust research, particularly trust in institutions, might benefit from increased inter- or transdisciplinarity. In this introductory chapter, we first give some background on prior disciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary work relating to trust. Next, we describe how this many-disciplined volume on institutional trust emerged from the joint activities of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation and a National Science Foundation-funded Workshop on institutional trust. This chapter describes some of the themes that emerged, while also providing an overview of the rest of the volume, which includes chapters that discuss conceptualizations, definitions, and measurement of trust; institutional trust across domains and contexts; and theoretical advances regarding the “dark” and “light” sides of institutional trust. Finally, we conclude with some thoughts about the future of and potential promises and pitfalls of trust as a focus of interdisciplinary study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

135483-Thumbnail Image.png

Issues of Validity in High-Stakes Testing

Description

Responsible test use requires validation \u2014 the process of collecting evidence to support the inferences drawn from test scores. In high-stakes testing contexts, the need for validation is especially great;

Responsible test use requires validation \u2014 the process of collecting evidence to support the inferences drawn from test scores. In high-stakes testing contexts, the need for validation is especially great; the far-reaching nature of high-stakes testing affects the educational, professional, and financial futures of stakeholders. The Standards for Educational and Psychological Measurement (AERA et al., 2014) offers specific guidance in developing and implementing tests. Still, concerns exist over the extent to which test developers and users of high-stakes tests are making valid inferences from test scores. This paper explores the current state of high-stakes educational testing and the validity issues surrounding it. Drawing on measurement theory literature, educational literature, and professional standards of test development and use, I assess the significance of these concerns and their potential implications for the stakeholders of high-stakes testing programs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

151476-Thumbnail Image.png

The assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviors

Description

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four projects that examined measurement properties of physical activity and sedentary behavior monitors. Project one identified the oxygen costs of four other care activities in seventeen adults. Pushing a wheelchair and pushing a stroller were identified as moderate-intensity activities. Minutes spent engaged in these activities contribute towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project two identified the oxygen costs of common cleaning activities in sixteen adults. Mopping a floor was identified as moderate-intensity physical activity, while cleaning a kitchen and cleaning a bathtub were identified as light-intensity physical activity. Minutes spent engaged in mopping a floor contributes towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project three evaluated the differences in number of minutes spent in activity levels when utilizing different epoch lengths in accelerometry. A shorter epoch length (1-second, 5-seconds) accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary behaviors than a longer epoch length (60-seconds). The longer epoch length also identified significantly more time engaged in light-intensity activities than the shorter epoch lengths. Future research needs to account for epoch length selection when conducting physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment. Project four investigated the accuracy of four activity monitors in assessing activities that were either sedentary behaviors or light-intensity physical activities. The ActiGraph GT3X+ assessed the activities least accurately, while the SenseWear Armband and ActivPAL assessed activities equally accurately. The monitor used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors may influence the accuracy of the measurement of a construct.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

149584-Thumbnail Image.png

Measurement and analysis of ergonomic loads on mechanical system installers

Description

Construction work is ergonomically hazardous, as it requires numerous awkward postures, heavy lifting and other forceful exertions. Prolonged repetition and overexertion have a cumulative effect on workers often resulting

Construction work is ergonomically hazardous, as it requires numerous awkward postures, heavy lifting and other forceful exertions. Prolonged repetition and overexertion have a cumulative effect on workers often resulting in work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The United States spends approximately $850 billion a year on WMSDs. Mechanical installation workers experience serious overexertion injuries at rates exceeding the national average for all industries and all construction workers, and second only to laborers. The main contributing factors of WMSDs are ergonomic loads and extreme stresses due to incorrect postures. The motivation for this study is to reduce the WMSDs among mechanical system (HVAC system) installation workers. To achieve this goal, it is critical to reduce the ergonomic loads and extreme postures of these installers. This study has the following specific aims: (1) To measure the ergonomic loads on specific body regions (shoulders, back, neck, and legs) for different HVAC installation activities; and (2) To investigate how different activity parameters (material characteristics, equipment, workers, etc.) affect the severity and duration of ergonomic demands. The study focuses on the following activities: (1) layout, (2) ground assembly of ductwork, and (3) installation of duct and equipment at ceiling height using different methods. The researcher observed and analyzed 15 HVAC installation activities among three Arizona mechanical contractors. Ergonomic analysis of the activities using a postural guide developed from RULA and REBA methods was performed. The simultaneous analysis of the production tasks and the ergonomic loads identified the tasks with the highest postural loads for different body regions and the influence of the different work variables on extreme body postures. Based on this analysis the results support recommendations to mitigate long duration activities and exposure to extreme postures. These recommendations can potentially reduce risk, improve productivity and lower injury costs in the long term.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

155684-Thumbnail Image.png

Monitors-based measurement of sedentary behaviors and light physical activity in adults

Description

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce sedentary behaviors. This dissertation included three projects that examined measurement properties of wearable monitors used to measure sedentary behaviors. Project one examined the validity of three monitors: the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL™, and SenseWear 2. None of the monitors were equivalent with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake to estimate the energy cost of sedentary and light-intensity activities. The ActivPAL™ had the best accuracy as compared with the other monitors. In project two, the accuracy of ActiGraph GT3X+and GENEActiv cut-points used to assess sedentary behavior were compared with direct observation during free-living conditions. New vector magnitude cut-points also were developed to classify time spent in sedentary- and stationary behaviors during free-living conditions. The cut-points tested had modest overall accuracy to classify sedentary time as compared to direct observation. New ActiGraph 1-minute vector cut-points increased overall accuracy for classifying sedentary time. Project 3 examined the accuracy of the sedentary sphere by testing various arm elevation- and movement-count configurations using GENEActiv and ActiGraph GT3X+ data obtained during free-living conditions. None of the configurations were equivalent to the criterion measure of direct observation. The best configuration of the GENEActiv was: worn on the dominant wrist at 15 degrees below the horizontal plane with a cut-point <489 for each 15-second interval. The best configuration for the ActiGraph was: worn on the non-dominant wrist at 5° below the horizontal plane with a cut-point of <489 counts for each 15-second interval. Collectively, these findings indicate that the wearable monitors and methods examined in this study are limited in their ability to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to further understand the scope and limitations of wearable monitors and methods used to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

153035-Thumbnail Image.png

Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

Description

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

154532-Thumbnail Image.png

Sensor management algorithms for measurement of diffusion processes

Description

Modern systems that measure dynamical phenomena often have limitations as to how many sensors can operate at any given time step. This thesis considers a sensor scheduling problem in

Modern systems that measure dynamical phenomena often have limitations as to how many sensors can operate at any given time step. This thesis considers a sensor scheduling problem in which the source of a diffusive phenomenon is to be localized using single point measurements of its concentration. With a linear diffusion model, and in the absence of noise, classical observability theory describes whether or not the system's initial state can be deduced from a given set of linear measurements. However, it does not describe to what degree the system is observable. Different metrics of observability have been proposed in literature to address this issue. Many of these methods are based on choosing optimal or sub-optimal sensor schedules from a predetermined collection of possibilities. This thesis proposes two greedy algorithms for a one-dimensional and two-dimensional discrete diffusion processes. The first algorithm considers a deterministic linear dynamical system and deterministic linear measurements. The second algorithm considers noise on the measurements and is compared to a Kalman filter scheduling method described in published work.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

158571-Thumbnail Image.png

Familial Racial-ethnic Socialization of Multiracial Youth: A Qualitative Examination and Validation of the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale

Description

Pew Research Center reported in 2015 that already one-in-seven infants born in the United States are Multiracial (Livingston, 2017). Therefore, the number of Multiracial families is growing, and there is

Pew Research Center reported in 2015 that already one-in-seven infants born in the United States are Multiracial (Livingston, 2017). Therefore, the number of Multiracial families is growing, and there is a need to understand how parents are engaging in racial-ethnic socialization, or the transmission of messages to Multiracial children about race, ethnicity, and culture (Atkin & Yoo, 2019; Hughes et al., 2006). I conducted a qualitative interview study with 20 Multiracial emerging adults to understand the types of racial-ethnic socialization messages Multiracial youth receive from their parents, and used these themes to inform the development and validation of the first measure of racial-ethnic socialization for Multiracial youth, the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale.

Study 1 identified nine themes of racial-ethnic socialization content: cultural socialization, racial identity socialization, preparation for bias socialization, colorblind socialization, race conscious socialization, cultural diversity appreciation socialization, negative socialization, exposure to diversity socialization, and silent socialization. Study 2 utilized a sample of 902 Multiracial emerging adults to develop and validate the MY-Soc scale. Items were written to assess all of the themes identified in Study 1, with the exception of exposure to diversity socialization, and the survey was designed to collect responses regarding the socialization practices of two of the youths’ primary caregivers. The sample was split to run exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, finding support for a 62-item scale measuring all eight themes. The MY-Soc Scale was also supported by validity and reliability tests. The two studies advance the literature by increasing understanding of the racial-ethnic socialization experiences of Multiracial youth of diverse racial backgrounds. The MY-Soc Scale contributes an important tool for scholars and practitioners to learn which racial-ethnic socialization messages are promotive for Multiracial youth development in different contexts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157677-Thumbnail Image.png

Experimental Manipulation of Motivation and Self-Efficacy for Self-Control

Description

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple dimensions of self-control, this concept is not consistently defined and frequently only studied as a conglomerate in clinical research. The current study sought to examine how two experimental manipulations of subcomponents of self-control (motivation and self-efficacy) affect real-world consumptive behavior after accounting for executive function. Additionally, the validity and reliability of a brief state survey measure of perceived self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation was tested. The goal was to examine how basic scientific principles involved in self-control translate into clinically relevant behaviors, which may inform understanding of momentary lapses in self-control behavior, potentially leading to novel prevention and intervention efforts. 94 college students completed a 1-2 hour laboratory protocol during which they completed survey and laboratory-based tasks of self-control and related behaviors, executive function, and ad libitum alcohol consumption. Results showed that the self-efficacy manipulation successfully increased perceived self-control capacity, although this did not lead to a significant reduction in consumption. The motivation manipulation neither increased motivation nor reduced consumption in this sample. However, the brief state survey measure of self-control subcomponents demonstrated strong test-retest reliability and distinction from trait self-control, demonstrating its viability for use in future research. By elucidating the relationships between specific mechanisms of self-control, laboratory-based tasks and manipulations, and real-world consumptive behaviors, prevention and intervention efforts for problems such as alcohol abuse may be tailored to the needs of the individual and made more impactful and cost-effective.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157636-Thumbnail Image.png

Situational Shyness among Chinese Adolescents: Measurement and Associations with Adjustment

Description

Although researchers often conceptualize shyness as stable across different situations (e.g., Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009), evidence has suggested that shyness may consist of situation-specific components (e.g., Asendorpf, 1990a; 1990b;

Although researchers often conceptualize shyness as stable across different situations (e.g., Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009), evidence has suggested that shyness may consist of situation-specific components (e.g., Asendorpf, 1990a; 1990b; Gazelle & Faldowski, 2014; Xu & Farver, 2009). This study was aimed at developing a systematic measurement tool for situational shyness in adolescence, as well as examining the relations between situational shyness and other popular measures of shyness and between situational shyness and adjustment. A sample of Chinese adolescents (N = 492) from an urban school participated in the study during 7th (T1) and 8th (T2) grades. Adolescents self-reported their situational shyness using a new measure of hypothetical scenarios, as well as their general shyness, anxious shyness, regulated shyness, depressive symptoms, and loneliness. Peers reported adolescents’ general and conflicted shyness, and popularity and peer rejection. The school provided records of their academic achievement (exam scores).

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the situational shyness measure consistently supported that shyness in the hypothetical scenarios can be separated into three components: shyness with familiar peers, shyness with unfamiliar peers, and shyness in formal situations. These components had differential associations with other measures of shyness. Self-reported general and anxious shyness were related consistently to shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations, and occasionally to shyness with familiar peers. Self-reported regulated shyness was not related to self-reported shyness in any situation. Peer-reported conflicted shyness was associated with shyness with familiar and unfamiliar peers, whereas peer-reported general shyness was associated with shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations. Moreover, situational shyness showed differential relations to maladjustment. Shyness with familiar peers was associated positively with maladjustment in multiple domains, especially academic and peer difficulties. Shyness with unfamiliar peers and shyness in formal situations, in contrast, were associated primarily with internalizing problems. In addition, shyness with unfamiliar peers and in formal situations occasionally related to positive adjustment, suggesting shyness in specific situations may still be protective in contemporary urban China. The findings provided new evidence that the correlates of shyness depend on the situation in which shyness occurs, and may inform future intervention programs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019